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Abstracts of Articles published in Guojia hanghai 国家航海


   

《国家航海》第16辑 (2016年第3期)

Wu Songdi 吴松弟:近代海关文献的出版与海关史研究

[摘要: 缺少。English abstract: lacking]

Cai Cheng 蔡诚: 19世纪70年代中国与条约国贸易状况分析 [Analysis of Trade Between China and the Treaty Powers, 1870-1881]

在有关19世纪中国对外贸易的研究中,大部分研究集中于中国的国际收支平衡问题、某一通商口岸对外贸易的状况的分析和有关某种货物的对外贸易的状况,而分析中国与条约国之间的贸易状况的文章却比较稀少,因此本文希望利用1870—1881年中国海关贸易年表的数据,来对19世纪70年代的中国与条约国的贸易状况及北方、南方和长江流域三个不同区域的通商口岸之间的贸易状况做一个简单的分析。Studies of trade between China’s foreign trade during the nineteenth century have primarily focused upon its trading balance, structural analyses of a particular treaty port, and the import/export/re-export of a particular product. However, the general trend of trade between China and the treaty powers has yet to be fully studied. This article rearranges the annual Qing tariff statistics from 1870-1881. It separates the data into three geographic categories, namely Northern China, Yangtze River Basin, and Southern China to demonstrate how China’s different regions interacted with the foreign powers.

Hou Yenpo 侯彦伯: 1869年粤海关监督奏销折与粤海关税务司贸易报表中洋税收入数据之考核 [Investigation of the Data in the Memorials on the Submission of Expense Accounts to the Throne by the Superintendent of the Canton Maritime Customs House and the Returns on Foreign Trade Recorded by the Commissioner of the Canton Maritime Customs in 1869]

透过对粤海关监督上报的1869年四个结期的奏销折与粤海关税务司编制的1869年的各别四个季度的贸易报表对比可知,两种资料的洋税收入数额完全等同。同时查阅1863年与1864年的总税务司通令可知,海关税务司自1863年起便以海关两(关平银)作为洋税收入统计表的银两单位。此外,海关税务司会送给海关监督一份洋税统计表的副本。因此可知,晚清海关监督完全引用海关税务司统计的洋税数据编写奏销折。换句话说,晚清海关监督奏销折的银两单位有可能是海关两,而非库平两(库平银)。This article argues that the silver unit mentioned in the submission of expense accounts to the court by the Superintendent of the Canton Maritime Customs House and the returns on foreign trade recorded by the Commissioner of the Canton Maritime Customs was probably not the Treasury tael (K. Tls.). A careful study of memorials and other documents from both categories reveals that the unit of account used was most likely the Haikuan tael.

Lin Manhoung 林满红: 晚清的鸦片税(1858-1906)[Opium Taxes in Late Qing China, 1858-1906]

本文主要利用清末海关出版品、英国领事商务报告、清朝的官方文献及文集和地方志等数据重构 1858至1906年的鸦片税制。本文研究了鸦片税课征沿革、种类、性质及与各级政府间的关系,也研究了鸦片税在晚清全国与各地财政中的地位,及其在平衡区间财政盈亏中所发挥的作用。文中也利用进口鸦片价格需求弹性指出,鸦片上税而导致的价格上涨对鸦片消费总额的影响不大。在对鸦片吸食人口与鸦片消费额提出估算之后,本文指出:清政府的鸦片税征课政策虽增加了岁入,从而协助政权的维系,而且由于本国、外国鸦片税率的差距,也有助于本国鸦片逐渐取代外国鸦片而减少中国的漏巵,但整体而言,这项政策还是延缓了中国的经济成长。 This article mainly uses late Qing maritime customs publications, British consular commercial reports, Chinese official documents, the collected works of literati, and local gazetteers to reconstruct China’s opium tax system during the period of 1858-1906. By calculating the price elasticity of opium demand, this article concludes that the introduction of the opium tax had an insignificant effect upon consumption of the drug. Although the import substitution policies adopted by the Qing government helped increase official revenues and stem monetary leakage, thereby prolonging the regime’s survival, they retarded China’s economic growth on the whole.

Lin Yuju 林玉茹: 日治时期台湾的税关资料及其运用 [Materials on Customs during the Japanese Occupation of Taiwan and Their Application]

1895年,台湾由于中国在中日甲午战争中的失败,而被割让给日本。清王朝结束长达了对其长达212年的统治。作为日本的第一个殖民地的台湾,不但岛外贸易由清帝国经济圈转纳入日本帝国经济圈中,而且1860年开港以来施行的海关制度也由清帝国洋关模式转为全面接受西化的明治维新政府模式,海关改称作“税关”。1943年12月,为了对抗盟军的进攻,日本开始实行海运体制的一元化,在台湾总督府新设港务局,废止税关,以港务局体制取代长期独立于总督府之下的税关体制。1945年,日本战败,台湾重新回到祖国的怀抱。当年12月中国政府恢复了清末的海关总税务司署管理制度。大抵上,日治时期海关制度曾经进行多次变革,也产生了相当庞大的数据。这批史料有利于观察日据时期台湾社会和经济样态之变化。然而,至今尚未有专文来介绍日治时期税关制度的出现和演变,税关相关的报告或出版状况,以及研究者的利用。本文即以日据时期台湾的税关为研究对象,初探其制度的建立和演变;海关数据的产生、类型及收藏现况,以及其史料运用状况。In 1895, following the defeat of Qing forces in the Sino-Japanese War, Taiwan was ceded to Japan, ending more than 212 years of Qing imperial governance of the island. As Japan's first colony, Taiwan’s economy not only moved out of the orbit of the Qing Empire to that of Imperial Japan but its customs system underwent significant change. Since the 1860s, a Western-style customs had been used on the island, but now it switched to the Westernized model adopted by Japan as part of the Meiji Restoration. The name of the customs switched to “Zeikan.” In December 1943, in response to the unification of the marine transit system under wartime conditions, the Taiwan Governor abolished the Customs and established a new Harbor Bureau. In other words, the colonial government used the Harbor Bureau system to replace the Customs system, which had long operated independently under the Taiwan governor-general. In 1945, owing to Japan’s defeat in the Second World War, Taiwan returned to Chinese rule. In December of that year, the late Qing Customs institution was resumed in Taiwan. In general, there were several reforms of the Customs during the colonial Japanese period; the institution also generated huge numbers of documents. These sources are very useful to the study of social and economic changes in colonial Taiwan. However, there has been little scholarship to introduce the emergence of and changes in the Customs system during the Japanese occupation of Taiwan; to discuss the Customs reports and publications; or to consider the possible applications by researchers. This paper focuses on the Customs in colonial Taiwan, illustrates the emergence of and changes in the Customs institution, and reviews the production, types, and extant collections of Customs materials, as well as the possible utilizations of these important historical resources.


Mao Likun 毛立坤: 晚清时期上海对外贸易中的香港因素 [Hong Kong’s Role in Shanghai’s Foreign Trade during the Late Qing Period]

晚清时期,沪港两埠同为中国沿海地区仅有的两个枢纽港,相互间的贸易联系十分密切。在上海口岸洋货进口贸易领域,香港成为上海口岸第三大或第二大洋货进口间接中转地或直接供货地。在上海口岸土货出口贸易领域,香港只是上海口岸第四大或第五大土货直接出口地或间接中转地。尽管支配两地进出口贸易发展的机制有所不同,但是沪港两埠贸易联系的增强,使其双双成为带动中国经济现代化的领头羊。During the late Qing period, Shanghai and Hong Kong enjoyed an intimate trading relationship. Either through direct supply or transit via a third party, Hong Kong became Shanghai’s second- to third-largest source for foreign goods, and the fourth- to fifth-largest source for domestic products. Despite differences in the mechanisms for directing each port’s respective foreign trade, they became the twin locomotives of China’s economic modernization.

Yang Huanyu 杨换宇: 梅乐和与江门开埠设关情形论略 [F. W. Maze’s Role in the Opening of Kongmoon to Foreign Trade]

1904年3月8日,在梅乐和的主持下,江门关成立,标志着江门正式开埠通商。在江门关开埠期间,梅乐和一方面负责处理江门关的主要事务包括选募海关职员、港口划界、海关选址、拟定规章制度与征税等;另一方面积极参与《西江通商章程》的修订,并借机扩大江门关的管辖范围。通过上述考察,本文呈现了梅乐和筹办江门开埠的动态过程,借以深化近代中国口岸开埠史的研究。On March 8, 1904, the Kongmoon Customs was established under the auspices of F. W. Maze. He had recruited the customs staff, demarcated the boundaries of the port, and determined the location of the building. In addition, Maze was actively involved in the formulation of regulations for trade and shipping on the West River. In short, this paper presents the dynamic process of the development of Kongmoon Customs and highlights the importance of increased research into modern Chinese ports.

Yang Huanyu 杨换宇: 中国近代海关的航海知识生产及其谱系研究 [The Study on Chinese Maritime Customs Service Navigation Knowledge Production and Its Spectrum]

中国近代海关兼管海务和港务,它引入了英国等近代世界海洋强国先进的管理制度和技术,对中国沿海及内河地区进行过长时期和系统性的水文和气象调查,并曾刊布了大批科学性的近代航海图书资料。按航海知识谱系,近代海关的航海图书资料可分为海图、航路指南、助航设施报表、气象资料报表、潮汐表、地名录、航运里程表、综合资料等数种;按其内容和性质,则是英国近代对华航海调查资料的衍伸,多数在近代属于公开发行,少数为海关内部工作指导专用。近代海关航海知识的生产和累积,既是该机构对中国航海和航海科学发展的贡献,也是英帝国主义对华课业教程的一部分。The Chinese Maritime Customs Service introduced advanced systems of management and technology from Britain and other maritime powers to China. It conducted extensive hydrological and meteorological surveys of the country’s coastal and inland areas, and published its findings in nautical charts, sailing directions, navigational aids, meteorological data, tide tables, shipping odometers, and a gazetteer of China. This prolific production of nautical knowledge, an indirect result of British imperialism, nonetheless greatly contributed to the development of Chinese navigational science.

Zhang Limin 张利民: 20世纪初期天津对外贸易变化简析—从海关史的角度 [A Summary Analysis of the Development of Foreign Trade in Early Twentieth-Century Tianjin through Customs Data]

本文简析20世纪前后天津进出口贸易的数据,认为直接进出口贸易的增加是20世纪后天津对外贸易的主要变化;又从进出口商品的结构、贸易总值、轮船数量和对日贸易等方面论证国际市场对进出口贸易增加的影响;还分析了海河工程局的海河裁弯取直和入海口疏浚工程,认为这是导致天津直接进出口贸易迅速增加的原因,并通过简述铁路开通对腹地经济发展的作用,论证广义上政府行为也是对外贸易发展的推力。文章认为,20世纪后天津对外贸易的迅速增加,国内外市场的供求是在较长时段内的持续的推力,而政府主导的海河通航和铁路开通则在较短时段内发挥相当的作用,尤其是直接进出口贸易的发展。因此,在近代中国经济发展中,不可忽视包括各级和不同政府在内的广义上政府行为的因素。By analyzing the Tianjin customs data, this paper argues that direct import and export trade through the port experienced a significant increase during the early twentieth century. On the one hand, the robust growth of the international market, including the types of commodities marketed, value of trade, quantity of ships, and ties with Japan, played an important role in facilitating development. However, official measures, such as the Haihe Conservancy Board’s bend improvement and dredging of the Haihe River, along with the opening of railways to the hinterlands, also greatly increased the logistical capacity and efficiency of foreign trade. In sum, one cannot ignore the importance of government policies for the development of a modern economy.

Chang Chihyun 张志云: 税务专门学校与华籍关员(1908-1949)——中国新行政官僚体系的设立 [The Making of New Chinese Bureaucrats: The Customs College and the Chinese Customs Staff, 1908-1949]

本文试图考察中国新行政官僚体系在税务专门学校中的形成过程,以及中国政府如何一步步从外籍关员手中收回海关权力。新关员的培训方向一直在通才教育、专才训练以及党务干部培养三者之间摇摆,中国政府对控制权的主张揭开了一场为期四十年的政治角逐,海关总税务司署、政府、以及政党都被卷入了这场争斗。This article examines how a new Chinese bureaucratic structure emerged through the establishment of the Customs College, which sought to replace the practice of staffing the Customs with foreign nationals. The training of new bureaucrats vacillated between three different objectives: generalist education, specialist training, and cadre cultivation. China’s assertion of control over the service set the scene for four decades of political struggle involving the Inspectorate of Customs, successive Chinese governments, and the Nationalist Party.

Hamashita Takeshi 滨下武志: 海关洋员回顾录和第二代海关史研究 [Second-Generation Studies of the Chinese Maritime Customs: The Memoirs of Western Employees of the Service]

在海关史研究里,通过海关洋员个人的历史,我们可了解更多海关人事史。海关洋员汉学家的中国古典研究展开了文化史(文化比较史)等新的研究领域。海关洋员的传记是海关洋员在中国的“生活志”,包括日常生活、爱好、纪行、职业(专业)等,都反映海关洋员个人在中国的社会文化生活的记录,包括书信、日记、回忆录、访谈录、配偶(儿女)和亲戚的观察记录。为了深化了解海关洋员个人在中国的活动,我们需要把握以个人为主的以上的各种记载。在离开海关后,海关洋员实行多种不同的生活方式,有些人甚至开始作为汉学家的研究活动。另外也有些人在返回本国后,开始了大学的汉学研究与参与教育方面的活动,逐渐建立起欧洲的汉学传统,本文把这一范围的研究统称为“第二代海关史研究”。Research into the personal stories and records of foreign employees in the Chinese Maritime Customs constitutes a new approach toward the study of the service, which this articles categorizes as “second-generation studies.” Letters, diaries, reminiscences, interviews, and the biographies written by family members and relatives allow scholars to piece together valuable ethnographic records of their social lives, travels, hobbies, and career activities while in China. Many customs officials continued to maintain their involvement with the country even after their retirement from the service through involvement in academia. They became crucial in the pioneering of new fields, such as comparative cultural history. Their tireless efforts established a tradition of Sinology at universities in Europe and North America.

Li Peide 李培德: 外籍海关税务司在中国——以《中国海关税务司和翻译先驱邓罗的一生 (1857~1938年)》为中心的研究 [The Foreign Customs Commissioner in China: The Research as Represented by the Book of Public Success, Private Sorrow: The Life and Times of Charles Henry Brewitt-Taylor (1857-1938), China Customs Commissioner and Pioneer Translator]

本文主要讨论近年有关中国海关史的英语著作,指出通过自传、回忆录、来往书信和照片,可对外籍海关税务司在中国的职业生涯有更深入的了解。简立言所著《中国海关税务司和翻译先驱邓罗的一生 (1857~1938年)》可说是这一方面的代表作,通过邓罗在中国海关的职业生涯史,可帮助我们用一个不同的角度去看近代中国的政治、经济、社会和文化。This article reviews the monograph by Isidore Cyril Cannon on Charles Henry Brewitt-Taylor and provides an overview of recent research on the Chinese Maritime Customs. It emphasizes the importance of the biographies, memoirs, correspondences, diaries, and photographs of the foreign customs commissioners, which provides a wider angle for the studies of politics, economy, society and culture in modern China.

____________________________________

《国家航海》第15辑 (2016年第2期)

Robert J. Antony [安乐博]: 南中国海海上的女性:史料中的身影及推思 [On the Feminization of the South China Seas: Clues and Speculations in History]

人们对大海的印象是神秘而难以预测,而人们对女性的看法呢?从有关帆船年代 (age of sail)的档案资料(1450-1850)及实地田野考察的发现来看,在此时期,南中国海上留有不少女性活跃的痕迹。这些生活在水面上的女性以船为家,与世界上其他地区的女性相比,这群中国女性可以没有禁忌地在船上工作和生活。她们在船上的身份可以是伴侣、配偶、后代(如女儿等)、母亲、劳动力(水手、厨娘等)、妓女等,甚至于可以是“海盗”。也有许多与海有关的女性神祇,如著名的天后妈祖、龙母、三婆等。女性可以生活在海上的特性,是了解中国海洋史的另一个重要(另类)方式,它与传统史学的切入点不同;传统史学是以儒家思想及陆地为中心而展开。海洋文化中的的女性,代表了与陆地上主流文化截然不同的分野。她们代表「异端」,并打破已建构的传统女性地位;她们不再是男性的附庸,不再被三从四德及温良顺从等教条所禁锢。海洋世界中所崇奉的女性神祇,她们所代表的女性地位及违背传统以男性为主的思维,更加强了这种异端的概念,成为女性社会地位的正面示范。Many people regard the seas as precarious and mysterious, but so too are women regarded! Based on thirty years of archival research and fieldwork along the South China coast, this paper explains that during the age of sail (1450-1850) the South China Seas were a highly feminized space. Unlike many other places in the world, there were no taboos on women working and living aboard Chinese ships. Women went to sea as wives and daughters, as well as sailors, cooks, prostitutes, and pirates. Furthermore, many of the most important sea deities in China were female: the Empress of Heaven (Tianhou), Dragon Mother (Longmu), and the mysterious Third Sister (Sanpo). The characterization of a feminine seas is important as an alternative approach to understanding China’s maritime, one that moves away from the dominant Confucian and terra-centered approaches to Chinese history. Boat women represented the most radical departure from the traditional norms of the dominant society and culture on shore. They represented a threatening “otherness” that defied the accepted notions of womanhood, breaking with the established codes of female propriety, virtue, and passivity. Female sea deities reinforced notions of “otherness” and also provided boat women with positive models of womanhood, strength, and defiance in an otherwise male-dominated and terra-centered society.

He Peidong 何沛东: 清人对内外洋的地理认知 [Qing Perspectives of the Inner and Outer Seas]

清代我国近海海域被划分为内洋、外洋和公海性质的大洋。清人在日常生活中主要根据离岸远近、水色深浅、有无沙洲暗礁、山岛多少等这些显著的海洋地理特征对内外洋进行描述。内外洋的划分多以岛屿、港湾、沙洲等作为标志。这些共性的地理特征或许是清人对内外洋较普遍的认知。The Qing categorized the oceans into the Inner and Outer Ocean. The difference between the two lay in the distance from the shoreline, the color of the seawater, and the density of islands, among other factors. These geographic features constituted the general geographic understanding of the world during the Qing.


Li Man 李漫: 何处是“罂油”:契丹-南唐茶叶之路及其起点的考订 [Where is “Yinyou”: The “Tea Route” between Liao and Southern Tang and its Ports of Departure]

五代十国时期,契丹与南方的吴-南唐多有交往。而南唐与契丹的交往由于隔着“五代”的中原王朝,因此陆路直接交通并不现实。两国交往通过海路实现外交和贸易,大量的茶叶通过海路从南唐运往契丹。对于这条道路的起讫点,仅有的材料是《陆氏南唐书》中所记载的“臣镕自去年六月离罂油,七月至镇东关”,但在整个中国地理中并没有一个地方名叫“罂油”,也没有一个历史地名叫做“罂油”。而这个问题也迄今从未有研究。本文即对这个地点做一番推理和考证。During the period of “Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms”, the Khitan Liao and the Kingdom of Wu and Southern Tang are in frequent contact for economic and geopolitical incentives. Being separated by central dynasties, the Khitan-Southern Tang contact was never realistic nor successful via land route. Their diplomatic contact and business exchanges, however, were realized by maritime route via which plenty of tea were transported from the Southern Tang to the Khitan Liao. The starting and ending point of this maritime tea road is therefore meaningful and significant for historians who are interested in the bilateral relationship between the Khitan Liao and the Southern Tang. Until now , this question has not been discussed and the present essay aims to do some initial reasoning and research on this question.


Liu Wenxiang 刘文祥, Wu Qilin 吴启琳: 成寻渡海登陆杭州原因考——以《参天台五台山记》为中心 [Why did Jōjin Land in Hangzhou? An Analysis of Jōjin’s Visit to the Tiantai and Wutai Mountains]

熙宁五年(日本国年号延久四年,1072年),日本国僧人成寻在未获得政府颁发公凭的情况下,携弟子七人偷渡前往大宋天台山、五台山巡礼。《参天台五台山记》一书,记载成寻一行即将抵达明州时,却突然转向越州,并最终舍近求远选择在杭州登陆。目前学界对其原因的分析或语焉不详,或将着眼点关注在成寻的主观选择上,忽视了中国商人才是杭州登陆的最终决定者这一实情。与此同时,在成寻登陆杭州史实的背后,有着中日硫磺海贸往来以及宋朝抽解贸易的深厚背景。In the fifth year of Emperor Xining of the Song Dynasty (1070), the Japanese monk Jōjin sailed for the Buddhist holy mountains of Tiantai and Wutai along with seven of his disciples without obtaining a permit from the Japanese authorities. He later recorded his covert visit in an autobiographical narrative, Visit to the Tiantai and Wutai Mountains. This paper examines one intriguing passage from this account, which narrates how his ship, which was about to set anchor at Mingzhou, suddenly turned around and sailed instead for Hangzhou, where they ultimately landed. It shows that the decision to shift course came not from him or his disciples, but rather the Chinese merchants onboard the ship. Hangzhou was a major market for sulfur, as well as an administrative center where taxes could be easily paid.

Wang Hongbin 王宏斌: 清代前期广东水师巡洋会哨章程述论 [Brief Study of the Guangdong Naval Command’s Coastal Patrol Force during the Early Qing Dynasty]

从1683年开始广东水师着手建立巡洋制度,到1840年第一次中英鸦片战争爆发为止,广东水师的巡洋制度经历了157年的演变。总的来说,巡洋会哨制度日趋严密,不仅明确划分了各个水师镇、协、营的管辖范围,而且严格规定了统巡、总巡、分巡、协巡人员的职责,还周密安排了会哨的时间、地点和方法。The coastal patrol system lasted for 157 years, from the foundation of the Guangdong Naval Command in 1683 until the Opium War between China and Britain in the 1840s. On the whole, the system became increasingly institutionalized over time in terms of specialization of functions, personnel, and management. Sophisticated methods were developed to arrange for the times, locations, and methods for the patrols to meet.


Wang Juxin 王巨新: 清代华人移民暹罗研究 [Chinese Immigrantion to Siam during the Qing Dynasty]

清代华人移民暹罗经历了三次大的浪潮,根据清代华人移民暹罗表现出的不同规模、结构和分布特征,可将清代华人移民暹罗划分为1767年以前、1767至1855年、1855年以后三个阶段。清代华人移民暹罗的历史变化,既与清朝方面的东南沿海局势、对外贸易政策以及移民政策息息相关,也与暹罗历史变化、暹罗政府的华人政策紧密相联,还与清暹关系以及清暹交通有着密不可分的联系。但在不同阶段,这些因素的影响程度有所差异。与其他国家相比,华人移民暹罗的最大特点就在于他们对两国关系发展所做的贡献。可以说,没有哪个国家的华人移民能够像暹罗华人那样对两国关系产生如此大的作用和影响。Siam experienced three continuous waves of Chinese immigrants over the course of the Qing Dynasty: prior to 1767, from 1767 to 1855, and post-1855. The situation on the southeastern coast of China, the Qing Dynasty’s policies on foreign trade and settlement, and the Siamese government’s policies toward China and the Chinese affected each of the periods in different ways. It can be said that, compared with other countries, Chinese immigrants in Siam had more influence on the relationship between their country and China.


Wu Junfan 吴俊范: 海塘庇护与海疆地区的聚落兴起:以今上海浦东为例 [Seawall Expansion and Settlement along the Coastline of the Yangzi River Delta: The Example of Pudong]

唐宋以降长江三角洲前缘地区(今上海浦东地区)的较快成陆与海塘的历次修筑,使人类活动与聚落扩展都进入了活跃期,表现出以人们越出海塘开发滩涂或煮盐为引领、聚落扩展速度与规模加快、人口流动活跃的特征,具有显著的区域发展活力。但较高一级的市镇聚落的发展,在数量和规模方面却明显受到成陆晚、村聚历史积淀薄弱的制约,大镇数量少,尤其是接近海岸线一带产生市镇的条件不足。本文研究表明:海塘对于江南海疆的开发有着重要的意义,应当从自然环境和社会人文环境的变化方面对这一课题进行更宽泛的研究。A series of seawall constructions starting in the Tang and Song dynasties led to a rapid expansion in the scale of settlements along the coastline of the Yangzi River Delta. However, the development of higher-order marketing towns relatively lagged behind because of the recent formation of the reclaimed land and the relatively short history of the settlements.


Yan Peng 严鹏: 江南造船厂的技术能力构筑(1905—1937)[Technological Development in the Jiangnan Shipyard, 1905-1937]

江南造船厂的母体江南制造局因长期缺乏造船活动,导致相关技术能力退化,遂使清廷于1905年进行“局坞分家”的市场化改革。在洋员毛根主持下,江南造船厂引进了英商船厂的管理机制与外籍技术人员,重构了技术能力。第一次世界大战期间,江南造船厂因承造美国万吨运输船而得到了极大的发展。面对战后市场萧条,该厂在本土技术人员叶在馥主持下针对川江航运市场从事了技术创新活动。国民政府成立后,在海军将领陈绍宽主持下,江南造船厂作为新海军建设的承担者,提升了军舰制造技术。江南造船厂的案例表明,装备制造企业的技术发展依附于实际的制造活动,国家与市场的功能均在于为企业提供从事复杂制造活动的机会。During the last years of the Qing, the government decided to introduce market mechanisms into the operation of the Jiangnan Shipyard. The Scotsman R. B. Mauchan took over the leadership and introduced British management and staff to restructure its technological capabilities. The effort met with tremendous success. During the First World War, the yard developed rapidly by building 10000-ton ships to order for the United States. Amid the Great Depression of the 1920s, the Jiangnan Shipyard, under the direction of Ye Zaifu, invented new designs for the Sichuan market. The Nationalist government commissioned the yard to construct ships for the new navy. This paper highlights the importance of the state and market in facilitating technological innovation among manufacturing enterprises.


Yan Peng 严鹏: 《遐迩贯珍》中所记录的华工出国与海外华人(1853-1856)——兼论《遐迩贯珍》的史料价值 [Study of the References to Chinese Laborers and Overseas Chinese in the Chinese Serial]

《遐迩贯珍》是第一次鸦片战争后英国传教士在香港创办的第一份中文月刊,其刊行年代1853-1856年正值近代华工出国高峰时期。刊物中出现大量关于华工出国与海外华人的报道,其内容丰富、类型多元,通过消息、通讯、评论、公告、条规以及轮船广告等多种形式,记录了19世纪中期华南沿海地区民众经由香港赴海外务工谋生的历史情形。报道内容不仅涉及华工出国的规模流向、海上交通与生活、域外华人劳作生活、西方视野下的华人形象等,同时作为一份英国传教士主办的刊物,相关文章的评论视角也折射出英国政府在移民政策、航运利益及对华治港等问题上的态度与立场。这些内容对于研究19世纪中期华人移民具有重要的史料价值,对于华工华人研究的思路与方法具有启发性意义。Published by British missionaries, the Chinese Serial was the first Chinese-language magazine in Hong Kong. The years in which it was issued, from 1853 to 1856, marked the height of the overseas immigration of laborers from southeastern China.. The periodical contains abundant documentation of this outflow, including news, commentary, notices, acts, regulations, as well as advertisements for steamships. It also reflects the favorable emigration policy of the British colonical authorities.


Zou Zhenhuan 邹振环: 南怀仁《坤舆全图》及其绘制的美洲和大洋洲动物图文 [Fauna from the Americas and Oceania as Depicted in Verbiest’s Comprehensive Map of the Myriad Countries of the World]

比利时耶稣会士南怀仁在清初先后完成了《坤舆全图》、《坤舆图说》等一系列重要的地理学著述,本文从大航海时代中西动物知识交流的角度,着重分析了《坤舆全图》中以“复合图文”之形式描绘的美洲和大洋洲地区的动物,指出南怀仁是沿着利玛窦和艾儒略传送多元文化观之思路的基础上,介绍了大航海时代后出现的西方动物学新知识,以及这些动物在后来清宫图像绘制系谱,如大型百科全书《古今图书集成》与18世纪乾隆朝摹绘《兽谱》中的衍化与变异,指出南怀仁是如何成功地找到了在基督教文化背景下,传送较之《坤舆万国全图》和《职方外纪》更具说服力的异域动物知识,和他在介绍西方动物知识特点的基础上,对中国传统动物学的回应。This paper examines the depictions of fauna found in the Comprehensive Map of the Myriad Countries of the World, completed under the direction of the Belgian Jesuit Ferdinand Verbiest. It highlights the success of Verbiest in building upon the foundation of his predecessors, Matteo Ricci and Giulio Aleni, to introduce and disseminate new Western zoological knowledge acquired during the Age of Discovery. The paper traces how this knowledge and its classification harmoniously merged with traditional Chinese zoology, as exhibited in major Qing imperial projects, such as the Imperial Encyclopedia and the Catalogue of Animals.

Ha Saebong 河世凤: 解读中国海洋史研究 [The State of Maritime History in China]

从20世纪90年代后期起,中國海洋史及海洋文化研究的成果大量增加,并表现出独特的视角与特征。总体而言,20世纪90年代后期以前的中国海外交通史研究表现出浓重的欧洲情结;至20世纪90年代后期, 中国的海外交通史研究发展成新的海洋史硏究;此后,海洋(文化)史研究开始突破欧洲为中心的模式,并表现出注重海岸区域史研究以及关注民族主权的倾向,海洋史也开始扩展到国家领土主权研究的范畴。Since the late 1990s, research on maritime history and culture has undergone a dramatic increase in China. Moreover, it has moved beyond a Europe-centered approach in favor of a regional view centered upon Chinese coastal ports, as well as a focus upon the preservation of national sovereignty.

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《国家航海》第14辑 (2016年第1期)

Guo Yuan 郭渊: 从《申报》看中法南沙领土争议及法日交涉 [The Sino-French Territorial Disputes over the Nansha Islands and the Franco-Japanese Negotiations from the Perspective of the Shenbao]

20世纪30年代, 法国派舰强占南威等南沙岛礁, 随后法政府公报宣称占领南海九小岛, 挑起中法南沙领土争议。 消息传至国内, 舆论哗然, 以上海《申报》为代表的中国报刊采撷国内外各种信息, 及时对该事件进行跟踪报道, 宣介中国政府和社会各阶层捍卫南海主权之信息, 并展开了关于国防建设的讨论, 抨击法国此举是对中国领土主权的侵犯, 指出法国的战略目的是觊觎中国的南海海权。 而日本政府以保护日人利益为借口向法提出的抗议行为, 是其战略利益链不断向南太平地区延伸的征兆。 《申报》对九小岛事件的报道与评介, 可以弥补正史记载之不足, 亦从一个侧面折射出南海局势之时代变迁。 In the 1930s, French ships seized the Nansha Islands and provoked a bitter dispute between China and France. The Shanghai newspaper Shenbao helped shape public opinion through timely updates of the incident, including negotiations between France and Japan over the islands that excluded China, and exposed the designs of these two powers to extend their influence into the southern Pacific. The periodical also issued condemnations of this infringement upon Chinese sovereignty and made calls for the public and government to bolster national defense. The Shenbao’s reports and commentaries serve as a valuable primary source that makes up for the lack of official records from the period.

Hou Jie 侯杰, Qin Fang 秦方: 战舰与炮台的博弈——以第二次鸦片战争时期三次大沽海战为中心 [Battleships vs. Batteries: The Three Naval Battles of Dagu during the Second Opium War]

在近代海防战争中, 炮台与战舰作为一对矛与盾相互较量和反复博弈, 决定了战争的走向和最终结局。 在第二次鸦片战争中, 位于中国首都北京东大门——天津入海口的大沽炮台经历了英法联军于1858年、 1859年和1860年发动的三次海战的洗礼, 并在历次海战中发挥了不同的作用, 进而决定了每次战斗的最后结果。 本文拟以第二次鸦片战争时期的三次大沽海战为中心, 通过对大沽炮台、 火炮以及大沽等地防御体系的剖析, 结合英法联军的舰船情况, 阐明在近代海防战争中, 不仅士兵、 指挥者等起到决定海防战争胜败的重要作用, 而且炮台及其相关的防御体系也和战争的结局有着密不可分的关系。 During the Second Opium War, the Dagu Battery at Tianjin, which defended the capital, experienced three offensives from combined forces of the English and French, namely, in 1858, 1859, and 1860. This article examines the defensive system of the battery and the battleships of the English and French, as well as their role in determining the final outcome of these conflicts.

Liu Ping 刘平, Zhao Yuexing 赵月星: 从《靖海氛记》看嘉庆广东海盗的兴衰 [The Pirates of the Guangdong Coast during the Mid-Qing as Portrayed in the Record of Clearing the Seas]

海盗, 在西方是一个充满传奇冒险色彩的词汇, 但对于18、 19世纪之交的清廷来说, 则是一个头痛不已的社会问题。 袁永纶所撰《靖海氛记》是一本在国内失传、 仅存于海外的关于嘉庆广东海盗的珍贵文献。 本文以《靖海氛记》为线索, 梳理嘉庆广东海盗活动的脉络, 弥补相关研究之不足。 Although the term evokes romantic images and connotations in the West, piracy was a serious social problem for the Qing court at the turn of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Through an examination and analysis of Yang Yonglun’s Record of Clearing the Seas (Jinghaifen ji), a valuable primary record of the events that has only survived overseas, in Britain, this article traces the rise and fall of the Guangdong pirates during the Jiaqing reign.

Liu Yijie 刘义杰, Wang Ningjun 王宁军: 海道针经述论 [A Survey of the Classic of Compass Navigation (Haidaozhenjing)]

海道针经是我国发明航海罗盘之后记录航路针位和里程, 用以导航的工具书。 历史文献中, 这种指南有种种不同的称谓, 本文对此进行了梳理, 认为以“海道针经”来作为统称还是比较合适的; 其次, 本文分析了海道针经三种不同的形态, 并指出三者之间的关系与差异; 最后, 对海道针经的构成模式进行了剖析。 The Classic of Compass Navigation (Haidaozhenjing) refers, in general, to manuals that record the routes and distances. They became prevalent after the invention of the compass. This article examines three types of these manuals, and compares and analyzes their respective contents.

Liu Yonglian 刘永连, Liu Jiaxing 刘家兴: 唐代漂流人与东亚海域 [Drifters in Maritime East Asia during the Tang]

漂流人即因风浪在海上失事漂流的难民, 是从事海洋活动的特殊群体, 其史料零散记载于各类史籍杂著。 目前学界对明清时期朝鲜、 日本漂流人事件及其相关问题研究较多, 而对此前和中国的漂流人缺乏关注。 唐代漂流人故事在《太平广记》中比较突出, 它们至少反映了以下问题:唐人对东亚海域自然和人文环境的认识; 唐朝与新罗、 日本等国之间的往来和交通状况, 当时不仅登州在中外交通中位置尤为突出, 而且青州、 海州等地也是沟通唐与东海各国的重要据点。 透过这些分析, 可以得知唐代中国与东亚海域各国之间的交通和交往有了较大的发展。 Because of their special status, drifters make frequent appearances in the primary records. At present, most studies remain focused upon Korean and Japanese shipwrecked mariners during the Ming and Qing dynasties. However, much less attention has been paid to Chinese drifters from earlier periods. This article examines and analyzes references to drifters from the Tang dynasty found in the Vast Records of the Era of Great Peace (Taiping guangji). As it argues, the drifters had a fairly good knowledge of the East Asian sea lanes. The record further provides a valuable picture of the exchange of products and information among the Tang, Silla, and Japan. Finally, we can acquire a better understanding of the major Chinese ports for overseas trade during this period, including Dengzhou, Qingzhou, and Haizhou.

Niu Junkai 牛军凯: 从“征占”到“平南”——15—18世纪越南“南行路程图”研究 [From “Conquering Champa” to “Pacifying the South”: Vietnamese Maps of the Southern Advance, 15th-18th Centuries]

在15-18世纪的越南地理书中, “南行路程图”占有最大篇幅。 该行程记述了京城升龙至占城的详细行程, 广南政权的军事要塞分布, 沿途重要海门的海神与历史事迹等。 “南行路程图”一方面反映了早期越南地理学撰写以路程图为主的特征, 另一方面反映了中古到近世时代越南民族发展、 对外关系史的主题——南进与征占。 Maps of the Southern Advance constituted the main theme of Vietnamese works on geography from the fifteenth to the eighteenth centuries. These texts record the journey from the capital city of Thang Long to Champa, the military fortresses of the Quang Nam regime, and the deities of ports. The maps reveal some fascinating insights into the southward advance of Vietnam and the prolonged conflict with Champa.

Weng Shenjun 翁沈君: 方国珍袭击刘家港前后元代海运实景——以元人文集中海运官员资料为中心 [The Conditions of Sea Transportation during the Time of Fang Guozhen’s Assault on the Yuan Dynasty: Based upon Materials Related to Shipping Officials Found in the Yuan Collected Works]

朱清、 张瑄二人被诛之后, 元代的海运体制从“包干制”发展为“职业官僚与滨海富民共同执掌”的局面。 限于史料, 以往的研究更多的关注滨海豪族。 实际上元人文集中保留了大量海运万户府官员的功绩碑、 遗爱碑与去思碑, 时间大致是元顺帝即位前后二十年。 本文以此为切入点, 试图论述与分析在这一海运衰败时期, 海运官员仕途特点及所关注的海运要务等问题。 本文指出朝廷往往不考虑官员的出身, 而是选派驰骋官场且熟知江浙情形之人, 特别强调官员的能力。 这些海运官员关注的焦点大致是漕府的贪腐、 漕民的疾苦以及与其他部门的冲突和海寇的出现, 这些危机大致贯穿有元一代。 After the execution of Zhu Qing and Zhang Xuan, governance of the Yuan maritime transportation system became jointly shared by bureaucratically appointed administrators and wealthy coastal gentry. This article utilizes surviving documentation on these shipping officials found in collected works from the reign of Shundi to examine their primary characteristics and the problems that they encountered in the management of maritime transportation.

Wu Hongqi 吴宏岐: 澳门开埠与明代广东海防形势的变化 [The Opening of Macau and Changes in the Guangdong Coastal Defense System during the Ming Dynasty]

在嘉靖三十三年 (1554年) 澳门开埠之前, 葡萄牙商人、 东南亚海商等已经在广东沿海频繁活动。 澳门开埠早期的葡人居留地是在澳门半岛西北部的沙梨头一带, 葡萄牙人之所以开埠于沙梨头一带, 不仅是因为当地拥有优良的停泊处, 位置适中, 内外交通便利, 更为重要的是白鸽巢山的军事防卫作用和供给饮用水源的便利条件。 葡萄牙人在开埠澳门以后, 其在澳门的势力与日俱增, 除从事正常贸易外, 也时常在广东尤其是广州府沿海地带进行武力骚扰, 广东中路海防形势发生了重大变化, 广东海防的重心相应地从东路转向了中路。 Before Macau’s opening as a port in 1554, Portuguese traders had already been active in the coastal areas of Guangdong. In the early days of the opening, the Portuguese settled in Patane, on the northwestern part of the Macau Peninsula on account of its excellent harbor and convenient transportation, both to the rest of China and overseas. The nearby mountains further provided defensible terrain and drinking water. Portuguese power steadily expanded after their settlement of the enclave. In addition to regular trade, their ships regularly harassed shipping in the waters around Guangzhou. As a result, the focus of coastal defense shifted from the eastern part of the province to the Pearl River Delta.

Yang Peina 杨培娜: 濒海利益之争与明清鼎革中的粤东沿海战局 [The Struggle over Maritime Interest and the War Situation in Coastal East Guangdong in the 17th Century]

明末清初, 闽粤沿海地区呈现出纷繁复杂的局势。 清廷在与郑氏在粤东沿海的拉锯战中, 因借助了大量地方豪强的力量, 方能与拥有强大水师的郑氏抗衡。 在纷乱的粤东战事中, 充斥的是延续自明代后期以来的不同地方豪强之间的利益争夺, 最终形成吴六奇、 许龙、 苏利等三大势力联合对抗郑氏的局面。 本文梳理在明清鼎革大变局中, 潮州本地军事势力如何在郑氏海上势力的边界形成相对平衡的态势, 并结合地方社会经济及海上贸易情况来探析明清鼎革之中地域社会发展的复杂性。 During the mid-17th century, complicate political situation was viewed in coastal east Guangdong. Only by taking local warlord’s power as aid, could the Qing Dynasty contended with Zheng Chenggong’s army in the seesaw battle. These wars could be viewed as a continuation of the struggle among local powers over economic interest from the mid-Ming period. Finally, the situation that Xu Long, Su Li and Wu Liuqi united to resist the Zhengs formed in East Guangdong Province.

Yi Huili 易惠莉: 沙船商人与上海传统城市化和近代社会变迁 [Sha-chuan Merchants, Shanghai Traditional Urbanization and Modern Social Changes]

伴随江海关的设立和江苏的海运出海口由太仓浏河南移上海, 不断成长和富裕起来的沙船商人, 在上海传统城市化进程中发挥了主导性的作用。 而当1843年上海开埠之后, 他们又在上海逐步成为中外贸易的商品集散地和最大的商业港口城市的发展中, 作出了重大贡献。 正是在上海开埠之后的1840年代后半期以及之后的整整十年, 沙船商人迎来了事业发展的黄金时期。 当1860年代初西方的蒸汽轮船运输业和保险业在上海兴盛发展起来之后, 沙船商人遭遇了巨大挑战, 一面是沙船商人继续顽强地经营沙船业, 一面是在沙船业的黄金时期培养出来的沙船商人大家族后裔, 虽然开始走上与父辈完全不同的近代性的政治、 文化、 教育和外交等职业道路, 但却又继承了父辈关心参与地方事务的精神, 对是上海近代社会的变迁发挥了重大的作用。 As the Customs House was established and sea gate for transportation of Jiangsu was translocated southward to Shanghai from Liuhe River of Taicang, the growing and richer Sha-chuan merchants played a dominant role in the course of Shanghai’s traditional urbanization. Right after port-opening of Shanghai in 1843, they have made significant contributions to Shanghai’s gradual development as the commodity gathering and distribution center of sino-foreign trade and the biggest commercial port city of China. Since Shanghai’s port-opening (from the late half of 1840s and the following decade), Sha-chuan merchants entered a prosperous period for their careers. In early 1860s, as western steam ship transportation industry and insurance industry were thriving in Shanghai, Sha-chuan merchants were thrown into enormous challenges. On the one hand, they struggled to maintain operation of Sha-chuan industry. On the other hand, although the descendants from Sha-chuan merchant families, cultivated in golden period of Sha-chuan industry, have chosen totally different career paths as their fathers, such as modern politics, culture, education and diplomacy etc., the spirit to concern about and participate in local affairs has been successfully inherited from their fathers, which played a major role in Shanghai’s modern social changes.

Li Xiaolin 李小林: “政治”与“军事”之间的整合与调适——《明代北部海防体制研究》评述 [The Integration and Adjustment between “Politics” and “Military” ——The Review of Study on the Coastal Defense System in the Northern Part of Ming Dynasty]

[摘要: 缺少。English abstract: lacking]

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《国家航海》第13辑 (2015年第4期)

Chen Bo 陈波: 对马倭书与朝鲜传闻——朝鲜与日本围绕三藩之乱的情报交涉 [Intelligence Collection and Cooperation between Japan and Chosŏn Korea during the Revolt of the Three Feudatories]

清初三藩之乱的发生, 不仅严重动摇清王朝的统治, 也造成东亚地缘政治格局的大震荡。 为因应华夷秩序调整的可能变局, 日本和朝鲜皆致力于搜集中国大陆的政治军事情报, 并且围绕情报交换展开错综复杂的外交博弈。 日本屡屡以虚假情报试探朝鲜的反应, 朝鲜则极力进行情报封锁, 两国表面上依据交邻原则互通声气, 实则同床异梦, 时刻提防对方的情报讹诈。 日本和朝鲜错综激烈的情报攻防, 折射出当时清朝、 朝鲜、 日本三国在三藩之乱发生之际, 面对诡谲易变的国际格局, 产生了交错缠绕的利益分野。 The Revolt of the Three Feudatories not only severely threatened the Qing dynasty’s rule over China, but its ramifications reverberated througout the East Asian world. Faced with a complex geopolitical situation, both Japan and the Chosŏn dynasty of Korea stepped up their collection of intelligence on mainland China’s political and military affairs. This paper uses Korean and Japanese records, including the Fusetsugaki and Ka’i hentai, to show that, although the two countries were committed to the mutual sharing of intelligence under the principle of neighborly friendship, in reality they often hid or misrepresented information toward each other.

Chen Shaofeng 陈少丰: 宋代来华外国人旅行手续问题再探 [Another Look at the Song Dynasty’s Management of Foreign Travelers]

宋朝对外国人在华旅行实行特许制度, 旅行的核心问题是手续问题。 通过对外国僧侣、 使节、 蕃商之间的对比以及外国人与本国人的比较可知, 宋朝在办理来华外国人旅行手续方面具有三个显著特点:一是宋朝参照办理本国特定人群旅行手续的办法来办理外国对应人群的旅行手续, 将管理本国人的办法延伸到外国人身上; 二是宋朝应对外国不同人群规定了各具针对性的旅行手续办理方法, 各具特点; 三是作为旅行手续核心的通行证功能多样, 兼具贩运功能和担保功能。 宋朝通过严格的旅行手续, 有效地实现了对来华外国人行踪的控制。 The Song court’s licensing system for foreign travelers to China took on three sailient characteristics. For one, it represented an extension of laws and regulations toward domestic subjects. Moreover, the Song enacted differents set of policies to target different groups of foreigners, for instance, according to whether they were monks, envoys, or merchants. Finally, the passes could be sold or used as insurance. Through these rigorous but flexible travel procedures, the Song court effectively kept track of the whereabouts of foreigners within China.

Chen Yu-hsiang 陈钰祥: 粤洋之患、 莫大于盗——清代华南海盗的滋生背景 [The Background behind the Rise of Piracy in Guangdong in the Qing Dynasty]

有清一代, 东南环海, 万里汪洋, 舟船往来于其间, 此为东南沿海民生利益之所在。 中国东南沿海的泉州、 厦门、 广州等地, 自古以来便是主要的海上贸易港口, 而且商贸繁盛, 造船业及航海技术发达, 其中的广州更有“金山珠海, 天子南库”之称。 由于海上贸易量增加, 以劫掠商船为生的海盗也随之滋长。 中国广东和越南沿海海盗活动增长的原因, 除了航线贸易外, 地理环境也是不可忽略的事实:从粤东韩江流域向着粤西延伸, 经过珠江三角洲出海口的洋面, 雷州半岛与琼州府间的琼州海峡, 最后到东京湾及整个越南沿海, 这条海岸线上拥有无数的水道纵横交错, 可以藏身的岛屿星罗棋布, 良港众多, 因此成为中、 越水师“下洋缉捕”与海盗“逋逃渊薮”的水上世界。 本文拟从广东到越南的海洋地理环境、 两国之间的人文因素以及中越的经济贸易问题, 来了解在此海域活动的海盗背景。 This paper explores the rise of piracy in Guangdong and Vietnam through an analysis of the maritime geography of the region, cultural and other human factors, and the problems of economic exchange between China and Vietnam.

Gong Changqi 龚昌奇: 宁海舵的测绘与研究 [Survery and Research on the Ancient Rudder at Ninghai]

宁海宝德古船研究所收藏一柄大型海船木舵。 宁海舵的尺度、 工艺水平和保存之完好在国内不曾多见, 这对研究中国船舶属具的发展具有重要的文物价值。 This paper analyzes the structural and technical features of the Ninghai rudder, which is stored at the Institute of Ancient Chinese Ships. It also attempts to reconstruct the original ship to which the rudder once belonged.

He Guowei 何国卫: 中国古船建造法考述 [Disputing the “Structural Method” of Construction in Ancient Chinese Ships]

当前船史学界对中国古代造船顺序有所谓“船壳法”和“结构法”两种学术见解.然而从船舶制造工艺角度而言, 中国古船的横隔壁是满实了的横框架, 其支撑船壳外板保证船舶线型的作用是与肋骨相同的, 因此中国古船并不存在所谓的“船壳法”建造顺序, 所谓“船壳法”亦很难成立。 同时, 把对《龙江船厂志》有关记载的误读当作中国古代造船顺序为“壳先法”的依据是无法立论的。  At present, there are two academic views regarding the construction method of ancient Chinese ships - the “hell method” and “structural method.” This paper raises doubts about the “structural method.” For one, the bulkheads of ancient Chinese ships are integrated transverse webs that support the hull plate of the frame. Moreover, proponents of the “structural method” base their claims upon an erroneous understanding of the Longjiang Shipyard Records.

Matsuura Akira 松浦章: 清代沿海钓船的航运活动 [The Activities of Fishing Ships (Diao Chuan) in the China East Sea during the Qing Dynasty]

沙船、 鸟船、 福船、 广船被称为清代四大海船, 它们在中国沿海的航运活动为众人所知。 但是除了这四大海船之外的帆船, 其具体的航运活动情况在以往的研究中比较少见。 本文将围绕散见于清代后期史料中的“钓船”予以论述。 根据史料, 钓船是从事渔业和运输的帆船之一, 活动区域在浙江沿海, 尤其是温州近海附近。 20世纪前期的资料对“钓船”的船式进行了描述。 本文将对这种钓船从清代到20世纪前半期的活动情况。 The four major junks during the Qing dynasty, namely sand ships (shachuan), bird ships (niaochuan), Fujian ships (Fuchuan), and Guangdong ships (Guangchuan), have already been studied quite extensively. However, the activities of other types of ships remain poorly understood. This article aims to bridge this gap by focusing upon scattered late-Qing references to “fishing vessels” (diaochuan). These junks, used primarily for fishing and transportation purposes, were mostly active along the Zhejiang coast, especially in the waters near Wenzhou. The article will examine their evolution from the late Qing to the first half of the twentieth century.

Wang Yiping 王怡苹: 唐朝海上交通与贸易——以长沙窑贸易瓷为线索的考察 [Study of Maritime Trade and Shipping during the Tang Dynasty through the Trade Porcelain of the Changsha Kilns]

唐朝是中国与西方对外贸易交通由“陆上丝路”转换为“海上丝路”的重要历史时期。 而中世纪的海上贸易热潮中, 数量最多、 影响最大、 覆盖面最广的商品, 实属中国的陶瓷器。 “黑石号”是罕见的唐朝古沈船, 它为世人揭开唐代海上丝路的贸易面貌、 所航行的路线与海上据点。 沉船上装运了约6万件长沙窑贸易瓷, 占船内物品总量的90, 现代定名的长沙窑虽名不见史书记载也仅有200多年的流行期, 但开创了中国陶瓷的釉下彩、 釉下彩绘等多项制瓷工艺, 在唐朝南北的窑口中展现了融合中西文化后的贸易瓷产品, 留下了难以磨灭的历史痕迹。 Foreign trade during the Tang dynasty was characterized by an important transition from reliance upon the overland Silk Road toward the maritime Silk Road. Chinese ceramics had the greatest influence upon the rapid growth of maritime trade. The Bitu Hitam shipwreck,dating from the Tang period, contains about 60,000 pieces of trade porcelain, accounting for 90% of the total cargo. Most of them originated from the Changsha Kilns. Although no historical records exist on the kilns themselves, artifacts at the site show that they helped pioneer a number of designs, including the use of underglaze.

Wei Lingxue 魏灵学: 鸦片战争与日本“世界认知”的转化——以江户时代“东西文化优劣论”的衍变为视角 [The Opium War and the transformation of Japanese Understanding of the World]

西洋势力的到来与西方知识的传入, 促使近世日本对于外部世界的认知不断嬗变。 18世纪后半叶, 日本的“东西文化优劣论”逐渐萌生, 而鸦片战争作为近世以降西势东渐的一次高潮, 促使这种思潮由“臆测”向“事实”演变。 一方面, 虽然尚没有彻底摒弃将西洋视为“夷”的传统思维, 但幕府士人对于西方国家技术 (船炮) 的优越性有了更进一步的认识。 另一方面, 对于东西方文化优劣的比较, 开始影响到幕府对外交涉的相关政策, “礼夷”、 “通商”等主张相继出现, 而所谓“东洋道德·西洋艺术”的言论, 或可视为明治时代“和魂洋才”的先声。 As Western military power and knowledge poured into Asia, Japanese understanding of the world underwent a profound change. Already during the late eighteenth to early nineteenth centuries, studies of the West and cultural comparisons to the East acquired prominence in Japan. The Opium War acclerated this process. Although the Japanese did not entirely abandon their traditional belief of the Westerners as “barbarians,” they began to accept Western technological superiority. This, in turn, influenced the Tokugawa shogunate’s foreign policy, giving it the flexbility to adopt Western modes of diplomacy and open establish commercial relations with foreign countries.

Wu Qiang 武强: 近代上海对外贸易与市政经费筹集——以码头捐为中心的分析 [The Relationship between Trade and Municipal Funds in Modern Shanghai: An Analysis Based on the Wharfage Dues]

近代上海史上的码头捐, 建立在上海对外贸易不断增长的坚实基础上, 它随着上海港贸易额的扩张而迅速增长, 并在开征后承担了公共租界工部局市政费用的相当大一部分。 上海城市演变中的现代化, 使市政经费其他来源的比例不断增加, 故而码头捐在总数增长的同时, 所占工部局市政经费的比例却开始下降。 码头捐开征之后, 工部局就不断与上海的其他行政机构发生矛盾, 并逐渐调整着对码头捐的控制。 通过以交易成本理论为基础的分析可知, 因上海港贸易额的巨大进步, 工部局已不可能由自身独立征收码头捐; 也因对其他税源的拓展, 工部局日益减少对码头捐的依赖, 虽然仍保留这一税源, 却已完全放弃对它的直接征收, 交由江海关完成。 近代史上的上海以港口城市而闻名, 但其城市建设对上海港贸易的直接依赖越来越小。 上海作为中国经济中心的地位不断增强, 产业结构逐步完善, 城市建设经费来源日益多元化, 更促使了近代上海港口和城区的逐渐疏离。 The Wharfage Dues of Shanghai, based upon the volume of trade at the port, became one of the most important sources for municipal construction. However, as the city grew bigger and more modern, this source of income gradually shrank in proportion to total revenues. Although modern Shanghai became famous because of its port, the growth of the city itself actually had more to do with an increasingly diversified industrial economy. A bifurcation occurred between the urban area and the port district as a result.

Yao Yongchao 姚永超: 中国近代海关的《海务报告》考论 [The Study of Marine Department Annual Reports of China Maritime Customs (1909-1937)]

除征税等本体业务外, 中国近代海关的第二大职能任务是管理海务和港务。 在长达数十年的管理工作期间, 中国近代海关曾留下大量的海务和港务档案。 1909-1937年的海务年度报告, 是反映民国时期海关海务和港务工作业绩的最重要和最翔实的珍贵资料, 其内容覆盖面广、 连续性强、 权威性高, 具有较高的学术研究及工程应用等科学价值。 In addition to the collection of duties, the China Maritime Customs managed marine and port affairs. In the course of its business, the customs left behind many records of high value for academic research and applied sciences. This article examines the annual reports from the marine department during the Republic of China period, from 1909 to 1937.

Yu Fuhai 余福海: 郑芝龙研究何以成为可能?——1920年代以来两岸学界的郑芝龙研究述评 [The Evolution of Research on Zheng Zhilong: A Review of Cross-strait Academic Research on Zheng Zhilong since the 1920s]

1920年代以来, 两岸学术界进行了相当丰富的郑芝龙研究。 近年来相关史料, 尤其是海外史料的陆续整理出版, 为进一步提升郑芝龙研究的水准和层次提供了契机。 梳理1920年代以来两岸学界的郑芝龙研究成果, 分析相关研究的特点和不足, 并对今后一个时期的郑芝龙研究做出展望, 对郑芝龙研究成长为一个独立的研究主题至关重要。 Since the 1920s, scholars on both sides of the strait have greatly pushed forward our understanding of Zheng Zhilong’s life, achievements, and historical significance. Recent contributions from overseas have provided additional opportunities to improve the quality and level of domestic academic research. By tracing the evolution of scholarship on Zheng Zhilong, this paper highlights the crucial importance of positioning his research as an independent topic of inquiry.

Zhou Yunzhong 周运中: 明代《福建海防图》台湾地名考 [Taiwan in the Ming Coastal Defense Map of Fujian Province]

本文首次考证明代《福建海防图》上的台湾地名, 指出这幅地图画出台湾从北到南22处重要地名, 不仅完整画出从基隆到鹅銮鼻的台湾岛西海岸, 还包括台湾北方三岛中的花瓶屿与钓鱼岛列岛中的黄尾屿。 这证明台湾不仅属于明朝福建海防管辖, 而且明代中国人非常了解台湾, 中国人最早绘制出完整的台湾地图。 以前有人认为明代中国人从未绘制过完整台湾地图, 根据《福建海防图》可知, 这个观点完全错误。 这幅地图还画出北港、 魍港, 解决了前人对这二港位置的争论。 This article studies the references to Taiwan detailed in the Ming-era Coastal Defense Map of Fujian Province. The map indicates twenty-two places of significance in Taiwan, including the entire western coast from Jilong to Eluanbi, and portions of the Diaoyu Islands in the north. It further marks clearly the locations of Beigang and Wanggang, resolving arguments over whether the two ports were the same or different places. This article effectively disputes the view that Chinese during the Ming knew very little about Taiwan or that they never drew any maps of the island. It also demonstrates that Taiwan came under the coastal jurisdiction of the Ming.

Wu Songdi 吴松弟: 研究中国航海史的瑰宝——中国旧海关内播出版物中的航海资料

[摘要: 缺少。English abstract: lacking]

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《国家航海》第12辑 (2015年第3期)

Lai Chi-Kong 黎志刚: 卢作孚、 民生公司和中国航运业发展

[摘要: 缺少。English abstract: lacking]

Zhang Shouguang 张守广: 轮船航运实业家卢作孚

民生实业公司的创办人和总经理卢作孚, 是闻名中外的轮船航运实业家。 民生公司从航行于嘉陵江上的一艘70吨小火轮开始起步, 发展成为以轮船航运为主, 兼营造船、 煤矿、 钢铁、 染织等多种工业的大型民族资本企业集团, 在抗战初期的内迁抢运中为民族和国家作出了彪炳千秋的贡献和伟业。 在民生公司的发展中, 卢作孚独特的经营理念、 管理方式、 个人志趣发挥了至关重要的作用。 民生公司和卢作孚的奋斗史, 是中国早期现代轮船航运史册上的不朽篇章。 Lu Zufu, founder and general manager of Minsheng Industrial Company, was a worldly famous steamer shipping industrialist. This company started with one small steamer of 70 ton traveling on Jialing River; it later grew into a large national conglomeration specializing in steamer shipping business and other businesses such as shipbuilding, coal mine, steel, dyeing, and weaving. During the Sino-Japanese War (1937-45), the company made tremendous contribution to national resistance by transporting materials and fighters. This paper will examine Lu Zufu’s unique managing ideasand his personal striving which were essential to the success of Minsheng Company.

Dai Angang 戴鞍钢: 卢作孚与长江航运——以创办民生公司为中心 (1925—1931) [Lu Zuofu and shipping on the Yangtse River: Focus on Minsheng shipping company (1925-1931)]

民生公司创办初期, 卢作孚对长江航运业做出了杰出贡献, 并有力推动了民族航运业的发展。 This paper assesses Lu Zuofu’s role in building Minsheng Company as a major shipping line for the Yangtze River shipping.

Liu Chonglai 刘重来: 艰难起航 称雄川江——论卢作孚在民生公司初创中的经营举措 [From An Underdog to A Giant: the Important Measures Adopted by Lu Zuofu in the Initial Stages of Minsheng Corporation]

卢作孚1925年创办民生公司时, 正是川江民族航运业濒临崩溃之时, 在“没有任何理由要开办一个新的轮船公司”的背景下, 卢作孚以其大智大勇, 采取开辟新航线, 改革落后管理制度, 实行客运为主经营方针, 创造“三段航行法”, 主持“化零为整”运动等重大举措, 并在公司里倡导融爱国主义、 集体主义、 艰苦奋斗为一体的民生精神, 使公司不仅在恶劣的环境中艰难起航, 而且不到10年间便称雄川江, 创造了中国航运史的奇迹。 When Lu Zuofu founded Minsheng Corporation in 1925, the national shipping industry was in decline. With remarkable wisdom and courage, Lu opened new routes, improved the management, developed passenger liners, invented “three-section sailing”, led the “gather-parts-into-a-whole” campaign, and promoted the Minsheng spirit (i..e, patriotism, collectivism and hard struggle). These initiatives helped Minsheng Corporation make a good start in a competitive business circumstance. In less than ten years, Lu succeeded in monopolizing the shipping industry on Chuan River. This paper will examine how Lu was able to turn Minsheng Company into a success story of modern Chinese shipping industry.

Anne Reinhardt 罗安妮: 卢作孚与茶房——民生公司的管理对于长江航运公司的影响 (1930-1937) [Lu Zuofu and the Teaboy: The Impact of the Minsheng Company’s Management Practices on Yangzi River Shipping Companies, 1930-1937]

在20世纪30年代的轮船运输业中, 船上茶房人员的工作条件极差, 导致了茶房工作人员对航运公司的抵触。 这种抵触如此强烈, 其在影响船上乘客体验的同时, 也左右着航运公司的收入。 虽则不少航运公司都曾尝试解决所谓的“茶房危机”, 但均以失败告终, 而唯独民生公司成为业界的楚翘, 以科学人性的管理圆满解决此问题。 而民生公司的茶房管理方法, 亦为后世航运公司乃至国民政府新生活运动所借鉴。 This essay examines the Minsheng Company’s management methods for the stewards aboard its ships, known as “teaboys.” In the shipping field of the 1930s, the teaboys’ working conditions were very poor and the resistance they offered shipping companies significant to the degree that it affected passengers’ experiences and the companies’ earnings. Several companies adopted measures to address this “teaboy crisis”, but because of its unique management methods, Minsheng was the only one able to solve the problem on its ships. Subsequently, the Minsheng model of management was adopted both in other shipping companies and in the Nationalist Government’s New Life Movement.

Wu Xiaolu 吴晓璐: 天府煤矿的现代企业转型初探 (1925-1945) [Lu Zuofu and the modern transformation of Tianfu Mining Company 1925-1945]

煤炭对于现代航运业有着至关重要的作用。 随着民生轮船公司的发展, 民生公司对轮船动力的重要原料——煤炭的供应的要求也日渐提高, 不仅在数量上有要求, 并且对原煤供应的稳定性和持续性的要求也大大增加。 为了适应民生轮船公司的用煤需求, 卢作孚将眼光放在了自办煤矿上面, 成立了天府煤矿, 并且抓紧机遇, 通过几次转型, 使得天府煤矿在成为民生轮船公司的重要燃料基地之外, 最终成为一个独立的现代大型煤矿企业。 本文将根据当时的工人月刊, 卢作孚的书信等为资料, 讨论卢作孚的“矿 (天府煤矿) ——路 (北川铁路) ——轮船 (民生轮船) ”的“三位一体”的企业集团发展, 以及在此过程中, 卢作孚如何以企业为推动工具, 促进地方上的社会变迁和现代化进程。 It is no doubt that coal is one of the important fuels for the modern transportation company. As Minsheng ship company was developing and growing, the demanding of coal from Minsheng was increasing. So did the stability and continuity of the coal production. Lu Zuofu's fuel proposal was to operate a mining company by himself so that he decided to become a shareholder of Tianfu Mining company, which became a part of his Minsheng empire later. The development of Tianfu Mining Company can be divided into three stages, which were also the important turning points for Tianfu Mining Company. In Lu Zuofu's prosposal, he plan to create the Trinity relationship business, including Mining (Tianfu Mining Company) , Road transportation (Beichuan Railway) , and water transportation (Minsheng Company), which formed the huge wartime Minsheng enterprise. During the development of the trinity business, the social change also happened in this area. This paper will discuss the development and the impact of the Tianfu Mining company, based on the local chronicles, newspapers and archives.

Yang Yanzhe 杨彦哲: 集团生活与现代化——民生公司与北碚乡村建设模式 [Collective Life and Modernization:Minsheng Company and Beibei Rural-Reconstruction Mode]

尽管当前学界在关于民生公司以及卢作孚的北碚乡村建设实验区的建设模式方面已取得了相当丰硕的研究成果, 但就笔者看来, 相关研究中对于卢氏现代化模式的核心理念——集团生活的分析与理解仍有值得商榷与深化的空间。 卢氏所倡导之“集团生活”, 强调秩序、 集体组织, 带有一种鲜明的领袖主导型团体主义 (Authoritarianism) 色彩, 这正是卢氏与同时期的渐进主义改革者在实践中最大的区别所在, 同时也是民生公司和北碚在短时间内脱胎换骨的关键因素之一。 本文将尝试梳理卢氏“集团生活”思想的基本脉络及其实践历程, 揭示民生公司与北碚模式在现代化实践中出现的领袖主导型团体主义风格, 并探讨这种领袖主导型团体主义现代化模式的历史合理性。 Although many studies have been done on Minsheng Company and Beibei Rural-Reconstruction Experimental Region under Lu Zuofu’s mode, there is still a need to fully understand Lu Zuofu’s concept of modernization, i.e. the “Collective Life”. Lu Zuofu’s mode of “Collective Life” emphasizes order and collective organization which obviously followed an authoritarianism ruling style. This, for the one hand, is the essential difference between Lu Zuofu’s mode and other gradualism reformers’ practice at that time. On the other hand, adopting an authoritarianism style rule is one of the key factors that contribute to Minsheng Company and Beibei’s dramatic high speed development in only a short period. This paper will examine the authoritarian ruling style in Minsheng Company and Beibei Experimetnal Regrion through analysing Lu Zuofu’s concept of “Collective Life”. Moreover, the rationality of modernization under authoritarianism rule in a certain historical condition will also be discussed.

Ma Changlin 马长林: 卢作孚与宜昌大撤退 [Lu Zuofu and Great Retreat from Yichang City]

抗战开始后, 卢作孚即积极投身支援抗战的行动, 调集了民生公司的船只, 转运苏、 锡、 常一带及上海、 南京的物资到武汉、 宜昌、 重庆等地。 武汉失守后, 面对大批人员和物资积压在宜昌的混乱局面, 卢作孚亲临现场, 协调各方力量, 周密计划, 采取非常措施, 赶在长江枯水期来临之前, 胜利完成40天抢运计划, 实现了“中国实业上的敦刻尔克”, 为抗战作出了卓越贡献。 After the outbreak of the Sino-Japanese War, Lu zuofu actively entered war to protect. After the fall of Wuchang city,a large number of peoples and materials were stored in Yichang city. In this chaotic situation, Lu zuofu organize all kinds of activities to save his countrymen. Before the dry uo of Changjiang River, Lu zuofu implemented the transport plan in 40 Days, and thereby adding a great profit to the war proffer. This paper will discuss how Lu was able to facilitate an orderly retreat from Yichang City.

Zhang Limin 张利民: 从卢作孚从政看企业家对国家和社会的责任感 [The Duty and Responsibility of An Entrepreneur: Lu Zuofu’s Entry into Politics]

本文概述卢作孚从教育救国到实业家的社会身份的转变, 以及其从政经历, 进而探讨卢作孚在国家内外交困, 命运多舛的局面下是怎样将企业发展与国家连在一起的, 是如何处理与地方、 中央政府的纷杂多变的关系的, 以及政府对卢作孚的重用是建立在什么基础上的, 进而分析在近代中国, 即便是战时的状况下政府与民族企业的关系, 以及政府行为对民族企业发展的作用。 This paper will examine Lu Zuofu’s transformation from devoting himself to “saving the nation by education” to becoming an entrepreneur deeply involved in government and politics. To elucidate the complex relations between state and private enterprise during wartime, this paper will focus on Lu’s efforts to navigate the shifting alliances between national and local leaders, and his attempts at rebuilding the Chinese economy based on government support. In the conclusion, this paper will shed light on the mutual dependence between state and private enterprise in co-creating a market system that served the economic needs of 1940s China.

Zhu Yingui 朱荫贵: 抗战胜利后的轮船招商局与民生公司 [China Merchants Steamship Company and Minsheng Shipping Company after the Victory of Anti-Japanese War]

抗战胜利后, 中国国家资本企业在政府授予的特权下, 大量接收敌伪资产, 实力大大增长。 而在抗战时期发挥重要作用的民间资本企业的发展却受到种种限制和阻碍, 社会经济中出现明显的“国进民退”现象。 南京政府实行这种政策, 有着复杂的根源和背景, 其中轮船招商局和民生公司就是国家资本和民间资本出现不同待遇和发展路径的典型代表。 After the end of the Sino-Japanese War, with the authorization of the Chinese Government, the state-owned enterprises took over a large number of assets from the Japanese puppet regime. Meanwhile, private enterprises faced with stringent restrictions and formidable obstacles when China’s economy was recovering. To assess the expansion of state-owned enterprises, this paper will compare China Merchants Steamship Company and Minsheng Shipping Company.

Liu Anbing 刘岸冰从股权变动看公私合营企业权力的转移——以民生公司为中心的考察 [From Ownership Changes to See the Power Transfer of Public-private Partnerships Company: Minsheng Company as the Research Center]

新中国建立后, 政府对民族资本主义工商业实行社会主义改造的过程中, 有别于对中小企业所采取的统购、 包销、 加工、 订货等初级改造方式, 对民生公司这种关系国民经济命脉、 有较大影响的企业, 则通过增资入股的方式, 逐渐改变其所有制结构, 以帮助其迅速恢复和发展生产, 再充分利用企业产权的双层结构特征, 有计划有步骤地接管企业经营权, 并获得人事调配权, 最后通过全行业公私合营, 赎买资本家 (股东) 对企业的投资, 完成原始产权层面的变革, 最终将私营企业改造为社会主义性质的国有企业, 从而实现社会主义改造的目的。 民生公司的公私合营道路成为后来公私合营企业的“一个范例”。 Shortly after the communist revolution, the Chinese government implemented the socialist transformation of the national capitalist industry and commerce. In the early 1950s, changes were made in regard to SMEs purchase, underwriting, processing, ordering, etc. But big companies such as Minsheng, which played an important role in national economy and had a greater impact on business, the socialist transformation took a more circuitous route. In order to stabilize the economy and promote production, the government allowed their ownership structure to be gradually modified through capital increase. Thus, for a period of time, these companies were allowed to have a double structure of corporate ownership where plans were made for the state to take over the business gradually and to achieve the right personnel deployment The goal of this policy was that through the mixed public-private partnership the private sector would eventually be transformed into state-owned enterprises, and thereby completing the transition to socialism.,. This paper will focus on Minsheng Company as an example of the public-private partnership that drastically changed the structure of Chinese economy in thte 1950s.

Wong Wing-Fai 黄咏晖: 简评《我的父亲卢作孚》[A Review of "My Father Lu Zuofu"]

《我的父亲卢作孚》的作者卢国纪是土木工程师出身, 之后成为登上福布斯中国富豪榜的企业家。 书中对卢作孚计划管理、 工商管理和企业领导的手段多所著墨, 显然这些管理和领导哲学对卢国纪重建民生公司时起着绝对的指示作用。 这是一本卢作孚生平传记, 亦是卢国纪的成长历程。 这本传记详细描写卢作孚一生如何运用他超越那个时代的管理头脑和企业领导能力, 叱诧当时的商场和官场, 甚至在抗日战场上。 The author Lu Guoji is Lu Zuofu's son. He used to be a civil engineer and has become an entrepreneur listed in the Forbes magazine China Rich List. The book covers many aspects of Lu Zuofu's project management and business administration skills and enterprise leadership. Obviously Lu Zuofu's management and leadership philosophy gave Lu Guoji guidance on rebuilding Minsheng Company. This is a biography of Lu Zuofu as well as the growing experience of Lu Guoji. The biography illustrates in detail how Lu Zuofu demonstrated his all-powerful epochal project management and business administration skills and enterprise leadership at business, politic and the anti-Japanese battlefield.

Yang Yanzhe 杨彦哲: 孚观止——简评《卢作孚年谱长编》[“The Finest Classic” in Lu Zuofu Studies: A Review of The Chronicle of Lu Zuofu]

2014年由中国社会科学出版社出版的《卢作孚年谱长编》, 是张守广教授历经十数寒暑所完成的又一力作。 本文简要回顾了本作的内容, 重点梳理了其与同类传世年谱相比所体现出的特色, 并探讨了本作对卢作孚研究领域的贡献。 The Chronicle of Lu Zuofu, which has been published by China Social Sciences Press in 2014, is another great work by Prof. Zhang Shouguang after more than a decade’s filed work and research. This review takes a glance at the main content of this book and focuses on analyzing its characteristics compared with other chronicles. Moreover, the contribution of this book to the field of Lu Zuofu studies has also been discussed.

Zhou Mingming 周鸣鸣: 近10年卢作孚研究新进展 (2005—2015) [The Latest Development in Lu Zuofu Research During the Past Decade (2005—2015)]

2015年是卢作孚先生创建的民生公司成立90周年, 卢作孚作为对中国二十世纪现代化历史进程中作出了重大贡献的伟人和先贤, 认真梳理、 总结当代人在继承、 研究、 弘扬这笔宝贵的民族文化遗产中的成果, 应是对卢作孚先生的最好纪念。 2005-2015年来, 国内外学术界对卢作孚研究有了新的进展, 相关成绩和问题的系统的回顾和总结, 有利于推进卢作孚研究的进一步深入。 The year 2015 is the 90th anniversary of the Minsheng Shipping Co., Ltd which was established by Mr. Lu Zuofu. As a great man and a sage, Lu Zuofu made a significant contribution to China's modernization during the twentieth century. To honor Lu’s contribution to modern Chinese shipping industry, this paper reviews and summarizes the latest developments in the research on Lu Zuofu inside and outside China during 2005-2015. By providing an assessment of current scholarship, this paper will chart new directions for further t studies of Lu Zuofu

Shan Li 单丽, Shen Yang 沈洋: “民生公司与近现代航运发展”学术座谈会纪要

[摘要: 缺少。English abstract: lacking]

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《国家航海》第11辑 (2015年第2期)

Stephen Davies 戴伟思: 八月炮火 [The Guns of August]

海洋史与海洋考古研究不仅只涉及船以及与船舶建造、 驾驶、 航海等直接相关的内容。 除此之外, 作为文献研究与考古发掘的产物, 那些有助于我们从更广的语境中全面理解船舶及其船员构成、 船型设计的内容很可能出现在陆地上。 然而, 任何考古发掘活动都是在一个既定的社会文化关系中进行, 这可能会对发掘方式产生影响, 进而影响到出土文物的价值判断, 特别是那些对我们的认知产生重要作用的文物。 由于《香港文物与古籍管理条例》中规定只有上溯年代为公元1800年之前的东西才能算是文物, 因此导致对4门19世纪枪炮的极尽发掘。 直到持续了六年的发掘与保护工作结束后才对其进行价值鉴定和历史研究, 一系列的延误也影响了我们对于香港海防史与海军码头的认知与阐释。 Maritime history and maritime archaeology do not only involve ships and things directly related to their building, operating and navigating. Much that helps us understand the larger context necessary fully to understand a ship and its crewing, design and operation may be found on land as the product of archival research or archaeological excavation. However, any excavation takes place within a given socio-cultural nexus. This may impact on the manner in which the excavation is conducted and hence the value of the artefacts recovered in making their contribution to our wider understanding. Hong Kong’s Antiquities and Monuments Ordinance, by restricting what counts as a ‘relic’ only to artefacts pre-dating 1800CE, led to an impoverished excavation of four 19th century guns. This delayed their evaluation and research on their provenance until six years after their excavation and conservation. The delay inhibited elucidating their contribution to our understanding of the development of Hong Kong’s coastal defences and naval dockyard.

Feng Zhiyang 冯志阳: 中国之道的转折点:严复对甲午海战的观察与反思 [The Turning Point of the Chinese Way: Yan Fu’s Observation and Reflection upon the Sino-Japanese War]

作为近代中国“西学第一人”的严复, 他前半生的事业都与北洋海军紧密相联。 因此当甲午战争爆发后, 他密切关注战场态势, 认为“北洋海军不败自废”, 并坚决反对议和, 指出议和是“倭患贫而我适以是拯之, 以资其虐我”, 为此提出“持久战”构想。 《马关条约》签订前后, 严复开始对甲午之战进行反思, 认为传统中国的政教学术强调对人心欲望的制约, 不求上进, 不以“富国强兵”为然, 而事实上“不讲富强, 而中国可以自安”在近现代世界已经是不可能的事情。 严复后半生的事业, 很大程度上正是为中国之道转向“寻求富强”进行论证, 而这种努力也彻底地改变了中国。 Highly regarded as the “Father of Western Learning” in China, Yan Fu devoted the first half of his career toward the development of the Beiyang Navy. He believed that China lost the Sino-Japanese War because of tactical errors and not because of any Japanese military advantage. He therefore expressed strong opposition to the ensuing peace negotiations and advocated a “protracted war.” After the Treaty of Shimonoseki was signed, Yan began his reflection upon the war. He pointed out that the traditional Chinese emphasis upon the restraint of human desire and behavior has become obsolete in the face of the emphasis upon progress. He advocated a reorientation of the Chinese way toward the search for wealth and power.

Li Jian 李坚: 清代韩江流域的渡口及其管理 [Han River Ferries and Their Management during the Qing Dynasty]

通过数据统计, 本文指出了清代流域内部之间渡口的差异性——即大埔、 丰顺县以义渡为主的, 海阳、 澄海县以私渡为主的。 这种差异性, 源自韩江流域内部各自不同的历史文化背景。 但是, 这种差异性在18世纪时已无关宏旨, 一个重要的趋势便是以义渡、 私渡为主的民间渡口逐渐超越官渡而占据韩江渡口的绝大多数。 与之相关的是另一个重要变化是, 民间渡口的创建者——乡绅及乡族势力, 逐渐成为渡口的主要管理者, 而官府则逐渐成为渡口间接的管理者, 管理职能逐渐淡化。 反映了随着韩江流域经济联系的增强, 内部不同地域、 文化之间壁垒也逐渐被拆解, 从而将韩江流域地方社会整合成一个更为广阔的经济圈。 Through the use of statistical data, this paper argues that during the eighteenth century, the number of government-run ferries was gradually overtaken by private ones operated by gentry and clans. This trend indicates a weakening of cultural and regional barriers amid economic integration of the Han River basin.

Liu Yingsheng 刘迎胜: 东西洋、 南海传统航线与南海的名称——对所谓西菲律宾海命名的回应 [The Traditional Navigation Lanes of the Eastern and Western Oceans and the Origin of the Terminology for the South China Sea]

南海是中国海舶航向东南亚、 次大陆、 西亚与东非的必经要道, 史书所载的“东洋”、 “西洋”称谓便大致以南海作为地理分界。 这片曾在汉文史书中被称为“涨海”、 “东大洋海”的海域, 自晋代以降始有“南海”之确切称谓。 而其之所以被称为“南海”且多为国际社会所接受, 不仅是因为其位于中国之南且与中国邻接的海域, 更因为历史上往来于此海域的商使的主要目的是从事与中国有关的活动, 从而使得在15世纪之前, 有关南海海洋活动的史料主要是汉文史料, 这一时期绘制南海及其周边地区舆图的也主要是中国人。 因此, 菲律宾外交部和国防部自2011年开始使用“西菲律宾海”来取代“南海”, 且疑似得到美方认可的行经, 并不能改变“南海”作为国际社会普遍使用术语的使用。 The South China Sea has served as an extremely important conduit for Chinese ships sailing to Southeast Asia, the Indian subcontinent, and West Asia and East Africa. It marks the boundary between the Dongyang, or Eastern Ocean, and the Xiyang, or Western Ocean, indicated in ancient Chinese books. The South China Sea, or Nanhai (The Southern Sea), acquired its present terminology during the Jin Dynasty. This body of water has since received acceptance from the international community, not only because it lies to the south of China, but also because it served as a passageway for merchants and envoys between China and the outside world. In fact, the vast majority of historical sources and charts and maps before the fourteenth century were drawn by Chinese. This widely accepted terminology means that the Philippine government does not have a basis for using the “West Philippine Sea” as an alternative to name this body of water.

Luo Xiaoxia 罗小霞,Wang Yuanlin 王元林: 重庆开埠对近代四川猪鬃业发展的影响 [The Opening of Chongqing Port and Its Impact on the Development of Sichuan’s Modern Bristle Industry]

重庆开埠前, 四川猪鬃即由广帮商人、 汉口商帮经营, 并从广州、 上海、 汉口出口,但因加工技术落后, 沿途关税重, 四川猪鬃的出口规模小。 1891年重庆正式开埠后, 四川猪鬃改由重庆出口, 运输成本减少。 英商立德乐首创猪鬃加工业, 开启了四川猪鬃业的近代企业加工模式, 形成了从屠户到洋行的较为完整的收购和运销系统, 奠定了近代后期四川猪鬃业的经营模式。 重庆开埠是四川猪鬃业发展的转折点, 为其驰名世界创造了契机, 但这种生产与出口存在一定的局限性。 Before the opening of Chongqing port, bristles were primarily transported to, and then exported downriver at Hankou, Guangzhou, and Hankou. However, the scale of the shipments remained small because of primitive processing methods and heavy tolls. Transportation costs witnessed a dramatic reduction with the opening of Chongqing in 1891, bringing about a dramatic expansion and modernization of the bristle industry. Taking advantage of the port facilities, the British merchant Archibald John Little forged a supply network and distribution system that linked the butcher to the foreign firms. Chongqing’s opening proved to be the turning point of Sichuan’s bristle industry in its ascent to fame. Nonetheless, it also resulted in limitations in its production and export.

Ma Guang 马光: 明初山东倭寇与沿海卫所制度考论 [Wokou Raiding Activities and the Coastal Defence System of Shandong in the early Ming Dynasty]

山东半岛三面环海, 漫长的海岸线及其东突入海的地理环境使其很容易成为倭寇袭击的对象。 明初山东频遭倭寇侵扰, 沿海居民饱受其害。 为防止倭寇进犯, 明太祖下令在山东设置多座沿海卫所。 明代山东沿海卫所属全国卫所布局的一部分, 其制度与全国大体相同, 从中央的都督府, 再到地方的都指挥使司、 指挥使、 千户、 百户、 总旗官、 小旗官等构成了严密的管理和战斗体系。 然而, 山东沿海卫所的设置又有其特殊情况: (1) 从兵力配置来看, 山东沿海卫所兵力多不足额, 且在编制上并非每卫都有五所, 即使部分卫设有五个所, 但其总兵额却依然不足;  (2) 因山东海岸线漫长, 卫所的设置有时候并不严格遵循“一郡者设所, 连郡者设卫”的定制, 而是根据实际情况灵活变动, 故有时候会出现一县境内就设有多个卫的情况;  (3) 一个州县境内的千户所、 百户所通常都会隶属同一个卫, 但是同在黄县境内的马停镇千户所和黄河寨百户所却分别属于莱州卫与登州卫;  (4) 山东沿海诸卫所多有自己的专属城池, 且常不与当地的府州县治同城;  (5) 山东沿海卫所的设置还有“爆发性”的特点。 洪武三十一年, 明太祖下令一次性在山东设置七卫、 两守御千户所, 实属罕见。 山东沿海卫所制度多为以往学者所忽视, 其重要的特殊性更鲜有人涉及。 本文利用大量档案、 文集、 方志、 家谱等文献资料并参以铜官印、 碑刻、 沉船、 大炮筒等出土文物, 对明初山东沿海卫所制度进行深入探讨, 为了解明代地方军事制度具体实施情况提供了一个典型实例。 In the early Ming times, wokou raided the coastal regions of Shandong frequently, and they burned houses, plundered grain and treasures, and harmed, kidnapped and even killed people, which had a very bad influence on coastal people. In order to prevent wokou, the Ming government had to fortify and strengthen the coastal defence in Shandong. Although the military system of Shandong was similar to that of the whole China, it has several distinguishing features that should be considered particularly noteworthy. For instance, more than a half of the coastal guards in Shandong only had three rather than five battalions. Moreover, those guards that had five battalions always did not dispose of the complete quantity of soldiers. Second, those coastal guards and battalions were established flexibly, rather than strictly adhered to the regulation that “one county should have one battalion, and several counties should have one guard”. Third, normally, battalions and companies in the same county were always headed by the same guard, but Matingzhen battalion and Huanghezhai company, both of which were in Huang County, were controlled by Laizhou and Dengzhou guards respectively. Fourth, most coastal guards in Shandong had their own towns, which were not always located at the same city with prefecture or county government offices. Therefore, these special characteristics in Shandong provide us with a good case to understand more details of local military system in Ming China. Based on a large number of historical materials, such as textual records including official records, memorials to the throne, individual collected works, local gazettes and family tree books, and historical relics including official seals, ancient ships, stone tablets, and weapons, my study focuses on wokou raiding activities, and the establishment and development of guards and battalions system of Shandong in the early Ming Dynasty.

Shen Yimin 沈毅敏: 夏士德著作考证 [Research on the Works of G. R. G. Worcester]

夏士德 (G.R.G.Worcester, 1890-1969年) 是中国旧海关的英籍雇员, 曾任中国海关海务部门巡江事务长, 以撰写《长江的帆船与舢板》系列图书而闻名。 本文以历经十年时间追踪寻觅而获得的第一手信息为依据, 介绍了夏士德的10本著作:计有海关内部出版物5种, 公开出版物4种, 未曾出版的手稿1种。 文章对于罕见的海关内部出版物《A Classification of the Principal Chinese Sea-going Junks (中国主要海洋帆船的分类) 》以及未曾出版的手稿《The History of the Yangtze:Its Trade and Ships(长江的历史:它的贸易和船舶)》的内容作了详细披露。 文章最后论述了夏士德的著作对于研究中国造船史和长江航运史的价值。 G. R. G. Worcester (1890-1969) was a British employee of the China Maritime Customs. He formerly served as River Inspector of the Marine Department. He is best known for authoring the book series, The Junks and Sampans of the Yangtze. This paper, the product of ten years of meticulous research into primary materials, examines all ten of his books, including five internally published by the China Maritime Customs, four public publications, and one unpublished manuscript. In particular, the paper looks at two rarely used titles: the internal publication, A Classification of the Principal Chinese Seagoing Junks and the unpublished manuscript, The History of the Yangtze: Its Trade and Ships. Finally, the author explores the value of Worcester’s works on the history of Chinese shipbuilding and shipping along the Yangzi River.

Wang Dong 王栋: 一次被遗忘的航行——评《由东而西:耆英号航海, 1846-1853》一书 [A Forgotten Voyage: A Review of East Sails West: The Voyage of the Keying, 1846-1853]

英国航海史专家Stephen Davies撰写的《由东而西: 耆英号航海, 1846-1853》(英文, 2014年香港大学出版社出版) 一书钩沉了清代耆英号穿越航行印度洋和大西洋, 对中西海洋传承、 技术、 组织及体制进行了客观比较分析, 内容丰富, 资料翔实, 是本值得学术领域重视的好书。 围绕Davies一书, 本书评还就两个问题展开讨论: 第一, 耆英号的26名中国船员在美国纽约胜诉耆英号和船长Charles Kellett问题。 过去许多学者认为历史上华侨备受种族歧视, 仅仅是沉默和被动的受害者, 耆英号的故事却展示了海外华人抵制抗议、 用西方法律和政治制度争取权益的一面。 第二, 该书全面解读了东西方对传统中国平底帆船和舢板的历史认识和偏见, 中外各方对于地方、 民族和世界文化遗产的认知随历史环境而演变, 这些复杂过程和内涵都需要进一步深刻研究。  In East Sails West: The Voyage of the Keying, 1846-1855 (Hong Kong, 2014), Dr. Davies presents the reader an absorbing tale of the forgotten voyage of the Keying, a Chinese-built junk, from Hong Kong across the Indian and Atlantic Oceans to New York and Boston and then onwards to Britain. Solidly written, this book deserves much attention. In the book review, two issues are further discussed. First is the story about the 26 Chinese seamen who won the lawsuit against the Keying and Captain Charles Kellett. Conventional scholarship believes that Chinese in the United States were merely silent sojourners and passive victims in the age of racism. Davies’ book clearly shows that resistance, protest, defiance, and making use of the Western legal and political systems were an indispensable component of the Sino-foreign encounter that should not be dismissed. Second, the book seeks to understand the historical prejudices about traditional Chinese junk and sampan construction. It provides strong evidence that the conception of local, national and international heritage evolves differently in different historical settings.

Wang Jing 王静: 国民政府接收南海诸岛及中法西沙主权之交涉 [The Return of the South China Sea Islands to the Nationalist Government and Sino-French Diplomatic Exchange over the Sovereignty of the Xisha Islands]

抗战胜利后, 国民政府根据《开罗宣言》以及《波茨坦公告》的有关规定, 组织内政部、 外交部会商此事接收西沙、 南沙群岛的有关事宜, 决定由广东省政府具体负责接收事宜, 其他各部在行动中密切配合。 接收工作顺利完成后, 为有效管理南海诸岛, 海军总司令部分别设置各群岛管理处, 结束了西沙、 南沙群岛没有中国政府驻守的历史。 但法国殖民势力利用地缘关系, 侵占西沙部分岛礁, 并对中国政府接收行动提出了抗议。 为了维护南海权益, 国民政府对法展开了积极的外交斗争, 加强了西沙、 南沙主权设施建设, 此举对南海诸岛的主权捍卫起到了一定的积极作用, 但也有一些经验教训值得我们认真总结。 After the victorious conclusion of the Sino-Japanese War, the Nationalist government sought to prevent other countries from seizing the Xisha and Nansha Islands. Through consultation among the State Council, the Ministry of the Interior, and the Department of Defense, the government decided to place them under the jurisdiction of Guangdong Province. An Islands Management Office was also established to manage the South China Sea islands, the first time in history that they acquired an official presence. However, the French colonialists took advantage of the geopolitical situation to occupy some of the reefs in Xisha and contested the Nationalist claims. In response, the Chinese government strengthened its construction of facilities on the islands and waged active diplomatic representations toward France. These measures, while not entirely perfect, played a positive in safeguarding sovereignty over the South China Sea islands.

Wu Langxuan 吴琅璇: 古南海大浪湖今地考 [An Examination of Dalanghu in Ancient Nanhai]

古南海地名大浪湖,学术界至今不知其地所在, 致元史著作不能叙述相关的历史。 本文根据大浪湖音近大琅湖、 大灵胡、 和有关航诲针路的方位、 距离, 考定大浪湖即今越南中部的岘港、 岘港湾, 从而解除叙述元史的一个小小障碍, 也为中外航海交通史排徐了一个疑点。 Scholars today still cannot determine the precise location of the place known in the Yuan History as Dalanghu, in ancient Nanhai. Through an examination of the term’s etymology and maritime compass directions, this paper determines that Dalanghu probably refers to Da Nang and Da Nang Bay in central Vietnam, thereby helping to resolve a minor historical mystery.
Key words : Dalanghu ;Mount Dalanghu;Mount Dalinghu;Da Nang

Zhao Xianhai 赵现海: 晚明东亚海域地缘政治变迁与天津镇、 登莱镇的建立 [Geopolitical Changes in Maritime East Asia during the Late Ming and the Establishment of the Garrisons of Tianjin and Denglai]

16世纪末年, 日本发动了旨在以朝鲜为跳板, 进攻中国的战争, 日本称之“纹禄·庆长之役”, 朝鲜成“壬辰倭乱”。 这一战争改变了东亚海域地缘政治常态格局。 在“壬辰倭乱”冲击之下, 明朝加强了对海疆安全的关注, 一方面主动出击朝鲜半岛, 另一方面在沿海加强军事经营, 设立天津镇、 登莱镇, 从海洋方面, 拱卫京师与辽东的安全, 是奉行以防御为主的海疆政策。 At the end of the sixteenth century, Japan launched the Imjin War, using Korea as a launching point to attack the Ming Dynasty. In response, the Ming not only defended the Korean Peninsula, but it also paid heightened attention to maritime safety and strengthened coastal defenses. To better protect the capital area and the Liaodong frontier, it constructed fortifications and established the Tianjin and Denglai garrisons.

Meng Jianhuang 孟建煌, Zhang Ningning 长宁宁: 福建省社会科学界2014年学术年会分论坛 “海洋失业中的妈祖文化与华文文学”学术研讨会会议综述

[摘要: 缺少。English abstract: lacking]

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《国家航海》第10辑 (2015年第1期)

Chen Shaofeng 陈少丰: 界首交割——宋朝与交趾特殊外交模式的形成与实践 [Border Delivery: The Formation and Evolution of a Special Diplomatic Relationship between the Song Dynasty and Vietnam]

界首交割之议最早由交趾前黎朝皇帝黎桓于淳化元年 (990) 针对宋使出使问题提出, 但几经波折直到至和二年 (1055) 才得以实现。 宋朝与交趾在边境上的钦州和邕州通过界首交割的外交模式就宋使出使、 交使出使和事务交涉开展外交活动。 界首交割的外交模式主要活跃在南宋前半期 (1127—1190) , 这主要受宋交双边关系和宋朝财政状况的影响。 在界首交割中, 广南西路地方政府享有较大的外交权限。 界首交割的优势是可以节约成本和时间, 降低使者的行路风险, 同时当面交涉的方式便于事务的解决, 劣势是外交权限受限。 这种外交模式仅仅存在于接壤的宋朝和交趾之间, 是一种特殊的外交模式。 界首交割的外交模式还为后世所效仿。 The border delivery system was a special diplomatic framework unique to the Song Dynasty and Vietnam, which shared a common land border. The Vietnamese ruler of the Former Le Dynasty, Le Hoan, first proposed the idea in 990 to regularize contacts with the Song. However, it was not fully implemented until 1055. The two sides would dispatch envoys and engage in negotiations directly from the frontier outposts of Qinzhou and Yongzhou. Thus, the border delivery system gave the Song’s Guangnan West Route a great deal of authority over foreign affairs. This arrangement saved cost and times, decreased the envoys’ risk, and allowed for face-to-face negotiations. However, it was limited in its flexibility of action, decided upon in the capitals of Song and Vietnam. Later dynasties in both countries would use the border delivery system as a framework for conducting bilateral relations.

Chen Yande 陈衍德: 从经济思想史的角度看宋代士人的海外贸易观 [Song Official Views on Foreign Trade through the Perspective of the History of Economic Though]

本文从封建政治与海外贸易的关系、 经济生活与海外贸易的关系等方面, 论述了宋代士人对海外贸易的思想认识, 并将它们置于中国经济思想的发展过程中加以考察, 还将其与西方的贸易思想观念作了简单的比较。 This essay explores the attitude of Song-era shidaifu toward foreign trade through an examination of the relationship between overseas commerce and feudal politics and economic life. It also places the perspective of these elites within the broader development of Chinese economic thought, and compares it to Western mercantile views.

Chen Xianbo 陈贤波: 曾一本之变与明代中后期广东海防的挑战 [The Zeng Yiben Affair and the Challenges of Guangdong Coastal Defense in the Mid- to Late Ming Dynasty]

在嘉靖末年至隆庆初年征剿海寇曾一本过程中, 广东当局面临的海防挑战错综复杂, 突出表现在剿抚策略摇摆不定、 军备不足、 事权不一、 军情传递不畅等诸多方面。 官员将领之间不仅猜忌攻讦, 对外与福建省也相互推诿, 难以协调。 这些问题表明政治较量和人事纠葛是左右事件走向、 影响海防体制有效运作的症结所在。 正因为当时海防部署变化的背后包含相当多的权力和利益之争, 并牵扯到明代政治军事史上一大批重要人物, 因而揭示其中复杂微妙的关系对理解当时政治、 军事和社会的互动不无帮助。 The notorious pirate Zeng Yiben’s attacks on the Guangdong coast during the mid- to late Ming lasted for several years and devastated many towns and villages. However, poor coordination and personality differences within the Guangdong administration, along with the inter-provincial rivalry with Fujian, severely hampered an effective mobilization and response. The Zeng Yiben affair highlighted serious structural problems in the institutions of Ming coastal defense.

Hang Xing 杭行: 西方学术视野中的郑氏家族研究 [The State of Resarch on the Zheng Family on the Weat]

于17世纪明清转折时期打着反清复明旗号与东亚地区进行贸易的郑氏家族, 对中国和世界历史的发展产生了深远影响。  虽然西方与中国的学者都对郑氏家族, 特别是其四代领导者郑芝龙、 郑成功、 郑经、 和郑克塽都有相当的研究, 但两者的观点却有很大的差别。 本文主要讨论西方对郑氏家族历史评价如何随着时代与地缘政治的变迁而改变、 现在西方学者对有关郑氏的研究方向、 以及其有待改善之处。 The Zheng family, whose mercantile organization dominated East Asian trade during the seventeenth-century Ming-Qing transition, has left a tremendous impact upon Chinese and world history. Both China and the West enjoy a rich tradition of historiography on the organization, in particular its four generations of colorful and illustrious leaders—Zheng Zhilong, Zheng Chenggong, Zheng Jing, and Zheng Keshuang. However, the two sides differ significantly in terms of their respective methodologies, perspectives, and conclusions. This article will discuss the changing image and interpretation of the Zheng family among scholars in the West from the seventeenth century until today, paying attention to shifts in the geopolitical climate. It will further examine the current state of historiography and potential limitations to the approach of Western scholars.

Lin Han 林瀚: 清代民国时期福州传统木船研究 [Traditional Wooden Vessels in Fuzhou during the Qing and Republican Period]

福州作为传统港口城市, 处江海交汇之地。 依闽江之利, 与上游腹地进行山海贸易; 凭濒海之便, 与中国沿海诸港及世界贸易口岸互通有无, 而贸易的往来与物资的流通, 都离不开“船”这一媒介。 本文将根据海关报告、 民国调查资料、 旅行指南、 近现代编修的史志、 文史资料等文献, 并以近代留存下来的老相片及写实画作, 对福州内河及沿海传统木船做一梳理, 同时就来往船只的日常运营状况做初步考察, 以探析近代福州传统水运实态。 Fuzhou is a traditional port city located on the junction of rivers and the sea. The Min River provides a route for trade with its hinterlands upstream. Meanwhile, access to the ocean opens up the potential for trade with other ports across China and in the rest of the world. All of these exchanges rely upon the ship as an indispensable medium. Based upon an analysis of customs reports, survey data from the Republican period, travel guides, local gazetteers, literary sources, and old photographs and paintings, this paper investigates the structure of marine transportation and daily operation of vessels in Fuzhou.

Liu Yijie 刘义杰: 山形水势图说 [Research on the Shanxing shuishi tu]

我国古代自北宋末徐兢航海后, 始有海道图。 然后经南宋发展到元朝, 有了海道指南图, 这是已知的最早并存世的海图, 这是航海图雏形期的最高成就。 明初的《郑和航海图》和明中叶吴朴《渡海方程》及萧崇业的《琉球过海图》等是航海图从《海道图》发展成《山形水势图》的过渡阶段。 约到明中叶, 《山形水势图》开始成型并替代了《海道图》而成为“舟子秘本”。 章巽出版《古航海图考释》时, 已经猜测到《山形水势图》才是真正的海图。 随着《耶鲁藏中国山形水势图》的出现, 终于使我们认识到, 我国古代航海家是综合应用海道针经和山形水势图进行航海的。 本文裨益于“耶鲁图”的发现, 得以对《山形水势图》的展开讨论, 力图梳理我国古代海图产生和发展的过程, 并通过对《山形水势图》的研究, 认识我国古代航海史中曾经辉煌的篇章。 During the Northern Song Dynasty, sea lane charts began to appear to guide navigators in the seas. During the Yuan, the Sea Lane Guide Chart (Haidao zhinan tu) began to appear. It became the basis for all navigational maps up to the mid-Ming. By the late Ming, however, this navigation map (Shanxing shuishi tu), now stored at Yale University, had become the new standard for Chinese sailors, who utilized it in conjunction with the Classic of the Marine Compass (Haidao zhenjing). A study of the Yale map allows us to trace the origins and development of ancient Chinese nautical charts.

Liu Yonglian刘永连: 从海洋意识看中国海疆问题——以广东地方力量对东沙群岛的认知与管理为例 [Maritime Consciousness and the Problem of China’s Territorial Waters:The Example of the Guangdong Regional Authority’s Knowledge and Management of the Dongsha Islands]

在沿海地区, 广大渔民和商人等群体早就活动于周边海疆。 然而, 由于历代王朝向以大陆腹地为统治中心, 对周边海疆关注不足, 认识较晚, 管理上也久未到位。 特别是南海地区, 一直远离统治中心, 政府管理意识薄弱, 问题尤其突出。 以东沙群岛为例, 尽管早在魏晋南北朝时期就有粤闽渔民在此劳作, 但官方对其认识很晚, 广东地方政府直到20世纪初才真正将其纳入管理范围, 这是东沙群岛出现外交争端的重要原因之一。 晚清至民国数十年中, 东沙群岛三失三得, 这又与广东地方政府管理落实程度密切相关, 地方政府管理不力导致领土争端的产生和持续存在。 这种问题在中国海疆普遍存在。 Because all of the past Chinese dynasties centered their rule upon the continental hinterland, they knew very little about their territorial waters and lacked effective institutions to manage them. Take the example of the Dongsha Islands, in the South China Sea. Although anglers from Fujian and Guangdong had operated in the area since the third century AD, only in the early twentieth century did the Guangdong government exercise effective jurisdiction. This is one of the most important reasons for the diplomatic disputes over Dongsha’s status, which caused the island to be lost and then regained three times. Guangdong’s lack of experience and poor management is widespread across the coastal provinces of China.

Wang Juxin 王巨新: 清代前期与暹罗双轨贸易研究 [Research on Sino-Siamese Dual-Track Trade during the early Qing Dynasty]

清代前期与暹罗间存在朝贡贸易与通商贸易并行的双轨制。 前者主要指暹罗贡船在广州的入境贸易, 后者则包括中国商民往返暹罗的贸易和暹罗商船的来华贸易两部分。 比较而言, 暹罗朝贡贸易更多受清暹封贡关系与暹罗朝贡活动影响, 中暹通商贸易则主要受清朝对外贸易政策制约。 无论朝贡贸易还是通商贸易, 都有中国商民的广泛参与, 而行商则是两国贸易的必经中介。 Official and private trade coexisted in the trade between China and Siam during the early Qing. The first referred to the Siamese tribute missions to the court, which conducted commercial activities in Guangzhou. The second involved business conducted by mercantile vessels from China at Siam and Siamese ships at Guangzhou. Large numbers of Chinese merchants participated in both avenues of exchange. The Hong merchants provided crucial intermediary services to facilitate the trade.

Wang Yanghong 王杨红: 《星槎胜览》的版本、 刊行及价值 [The Editions, Publication and Value of Overall Survey of the Star Raft (XingCha ShengLan)]

费信是江苏昆山太仓卫人, 很可能出生于1388年。 他曾四次随船队下西洋, 并在归国后于1436年写成《星槎胜览》。 该书分前后集原本和四卷改订本两类, 至今共有13种版本。 虽然各版本刊行情况复杂, 但仍可探知一二。 两类版本各有详略, 原本未经删润, 更能真实地反映费信见闻; 而改订本流传数百年, 也说明了其价值所在。 相比《瀛涯胜览》, 篇目相同者, 费书不及其详尽, 但有些条目的内容, 它却作了必不可少的补充; 篇目不同者, 费信多取《岛夷志略》之文, 但也有自己的斟酌、 筛选。 对于《岛夷志略》、 《瀛涯胜览》未作记载之地, 此书颇有价值。 此书部分内容道出了15世纪东南亚华侨的某些情形, 也具有重要的史料价值。 Probably born in 1388 in Taicang, Jiangsu Province, Fei Xin was sent to the Indian Ocean for four times together with Zheng He’s fleet, and finished a book named Xing-Cha Sheng-Lan (XCSL) in 1436 after returning. The editions of Fei’s work can be divided into two groups, i.e. qian-hou-ji original and four juan revised categories including thirteen versions so far. We can ascertain some facts about its publication although its editorial history was very complex. The original one may reflect his real observations while the revision has its own value because of the spread for centuries. Comparing with Ying-Ya Sheng-Lan (YYSL) , XCSL is less detailed, but adds very essential contents in the same articles, and derives from Dao-Yi Zhi-Lüe (DYZL) with Fei’s consideration himself in the different ones. It is quite valuable for the areas that are not recorded in YYSL and DYZL. Fei’s book also has significant value as an historical record for providing some information about Southeast Asian Overseas Chinese in the 15th century.
Key words:Fei Xin, Overall Survey of the Star Raft (XingCha ShengLan)

Wang Yina 王一娜: 清代广东的士绅权力机构与民间海防 [Gentry Leadership and Organization of Guangdong’s Coastal Defense during the Qing Dynasty]

在清朝, 广东沿海局势一直动荡不安, 海防问题极其严峻。 然而, 清王朝在广东的海防设置远远不足以维持沿海地区的统治秩序。 在朝廷和地方官员的默许、 鼓励、 支持下, 广东的士绅权力机构逐步成为广东民间海防力量的核心, 弥补了国家海防的不足。 The situation along the Guangdong coast steadily spiraled out of control during the Qing Dynasty, and strained the resources of the thinly stretched bureaucratic system. With the tacit encouragement of the court and regional officials, gentry-led organizations became the core of coastal defense efforts, and helped perform many of the functions that the regular bureaucracy otherwise lacked the resources to carry out.

Wei Dexin 魏德新: 郑和“贻铃”史实辨析 [Historical Analysis of Zheng He’s “Gift of Bells”]

陈第的《东番记》, 自明万历卅一年 (1603) 问世至民国初这300余年间, 曾被十多部史籍文献转引。 其中《闽海赠言》为全文刊载, 余者大多是引述郑和“贻铃”这段典故。 由此可见, “贻铃”是《东番记》中至关重要的一段记述。 但由于“贻铃”中陡然一句“家贻一铜铃, 使颈之盖狗之也”, 令后人在解读上徒增了“贻铃”究竟是否表示“狗也”之疑惑。 因此, 明清以来不断有学者对“狗也”采取了回避态度或质疑。 本文在介绍现有成果的同时, 着重探究了郑和在“与日本交涉、 招谕海外诸番”过程中, 前往东番人住地 (走访不遇后) “贻铃”这一实质, 并就“贻铃”与“狗也”, “狗国”与“和恶之”等有争议的论点展开了探讨。 The “Account of the Eastern Barbarians,” written by Cheng Di in 1603, has since been cited as a historical reference in many accounts. The most intriguing passage speaks of Zheng He “leaving a bell for Pasai as a gift for wearing around the neck, like dogs.” This paper provides an in-depth examination of the anecdote, which leaves open so much room for interpretation, and the surrounding controversy. It will determine whether any solid evidence exists of the bell gift and whether it was meant as an insult to Pasai.

Zhang Chonggen 张崇根: 试论元代招谕瑠求 [The Yuan Dynasty’s Ultimatum for Submission to the Ryukyu Islands]

元世祖灭亡南宋前后, 在东海三次用兵:两次征伐日本, 一次招谕瑠求。 三次用兵都没有达到元朝统治者的目的, 因为遇到台风等原因, 两次征日都以失败告终;杨祥、 吴志斗招谕瑠求, 因为他们的相互争执, 结果没有到达瑠求 (今冲绳本岛) 。 日本和瑠求相隔数千里, 征日与招谕瑠求好像风马牛不相及, 其实是有内在联系的。 那就是, 招谕瑠求是为了建立征伐日本的新基地。 During the late thirteenth century, Kublai Khan of the Yuan Dynasty sent three naval expeditions into the East China Sea. Two of them aimed to subdue Japan, while one was to deliver an ultimatum for submission to the Ryukyu Islands. However, the Yuan failed to achieve all three objectives. The Japan campaigns failed because of severe storms and local resistance. Because of a severe dispute between the Yuan envoys to Ryukyu, Yang Xiang and Wu Zhidou, their mission did not reach their destination. Despite their vast distance from each other, the mission to Ryukyu had everything to do with the expeditions to Japan. It is apparent that the Yuan was looking at these islands as a new military base to launch another invasion of Japan.

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《国家航海》第9辑 (2014年第4期)

Chen Hongbo 陈洪波, Wang Ran 王然: 婆罗洲的独木舟造船术及其启示 [Canoe-Making in Borneo and Its Impl ications for Early Chinese History]

独木舟是人类早期重要的水上交通工具, 在中国考古发现中屡见不鲜, 但对于其制造方法却一直了解甚少。 婆罗洲的民族学资料对于我们了解中国早期独木舟的制造以及相关民族迁徙历史有很大启发。 通过详细分析婆罗洲迪雅克人的独木舟造船术, 可以推测:第一, 在造船的多种工具中, 石锛的作用最为重要; 第二, 中国东南、 东南亚、 太平洋地区有段石锛的发达, 与造船术和航海术的发达有密切的关系。 Ethnographic data conducted on canoe-making in Borneo allow for a better understanding of canoes and human migration in early Chinese history. This article concludes that adze, found across southeastern China, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific, constituted a crucial component in the construction of canoes.

Guo Yuan 郭渊: 东沙观象臺的建立及对海洋权益的维护 [The Establ ishment of the Pratas (Dongsha) Observatory and the Preservation of Maritime Interests]

为东亚各国航海便利, 国民政府经多方筹措, 设立了东沙台、 灯塔等航海设施。 该台的设立是中国践行国家领土主权的象征, 其行为为国际会议和他国政府所承认。 东沙台建成后在气象测验、 对外交流方面较为活跃, 海军部对该台进行了管理和建设, 并积累了丰富经验。 在维护海洋权益过程中, 海防处、 东沙台与偷采海产品的日人展开艰苦交涉, 并取得了一定成效。 然而由于中国海防总体实力较弱, 且东沙群岛不是国防关注的主要地点, 这决定东沙台在捍卫海洋权益过程中作用有限。 The establishment of the Pratas (Dongsha) Island Station by the Republican government, which included an observatory, lighthouse, and other navigational facilities, not only provided convenience for the ships of other East Asian countries, but also served as an important exercise of China’s territorial sovereignty. The act was recognized by international conferences and other governments. The Ministry of the Navy managed and constructed the station and acquired tremendous experience in naval affairs. The coast guard also endured tough negotiations with the Japanese, who were illegally fishing off the nearby waters. However, the Pratas Station only played a limited role in the defense and preservation of China’s maritime interests, since the island was not a main focus for national defense.

He Zhibiao 何志标: 从明代古籍所载战船尺度推测中国古船「料」的含义 [Speculation on the Meaning of an Ancient Chinese Ship’s Liao According to the Measurements of Warships Recorded in Ming Dynasty Texts]

在宋元明时期出现的“多少料船”中的“料”究竟是什么意思?通过对《南船记》所载七艘战船主船体所用木料的统计分析来看, “料”确实是一个可以表示船舶大小档次的量, 但并不是指建造船舶所用物料的多少, 也不是指船的容积, 更不是指船的载重量。 这一看法是受古建筑“定侧样”的启发, 并利用《南船记》和《龙江船厂志》所载七艘战船的主要尺度进行测算而产生的。 另外, “料”字的引申运用对于不同的对象在不同的情形下会有多种不同的含义, 而且都有可能用之于船, 应注意区分。 From the Song to the Ming Dynasties, the term liao appeared frequently in reference to ships. Through an analysis of the timber composition in the hulls of seven warships described in the Record of Southern Ships, this article concludes that liao indicates ship size. However, it does not refer to the materials used for ship construction, the vessel volume, or the mean capacity of the ship. Utilizing the traditional Chinese architectural principle of “side set view,” along with references in the Record of Southern Ships and the Gazetteer of the Longjiang Shipyard, the article speculates that the liao refers to the area of the hull longitudinal section. Of course, the measurement will vary depending upon the ship and circumstance.

Li Jinming 李金明: Zaitun与阿拉伯丝绸贸易 [Zaitun and the Silk Trade with Arabia]

在中世纪的阿拉伯著作中, 经常提到Zaitun这个词。 Zaitun这个词究竟指何地呢?尽管在学术界颇有争议, 但普遍还是认为指泉州较为合理。 至于Zaitun的含义, 它可能与泉州盛产丝绸有关, 有不少外国人甚至将丝绸与Zaitun这个名字联系起来, 即使外国汉学家也怀疑, 英、 法、 德语中的缎子 (Satin) 一词可能是源自于Zaitun这个名字。 因此可以说, Zaitun一词的产生与宋元时期泉州与阿拉伯丝绸贸易的发展有着密切的联系。 Despite significant controversy in academic circles, the word “Zaitun,” which appears frequently in medieval Arab works, is widely believed to refer to the port of Quanzhou. Many Sinologists believe that the Arabic term for the city, famed for its silk, gave rise to the term “satin,” now found in English, French, and German. We can thereby infer that the emergence of the word “Zaitun” was closely related to the development of Quanzhou-Arabia silk trade during the Song and Yuan dynasties.

Yu Shifeng 俞世峰, Li Yuan 李远: 宋元时期海上运输法中的国际私法规则研究——以《市舶条法》为视角 [Research on Instances of International Private Law Within the Marine Transport Regulations over the Song and Yuan Periods: Adopting the Perspective of the Regulations of the Custores Administration]

宋元时期海上丝绸之路的开辟, 海上运输以及贸易的发展, 促使相应的海商立法成熟, 其中尤以《市舶条法》著名。 本文通过详细的史实资料, 描绘宋元时期两百多年海上贸易发达的具体动因。 另外通过分析海上贸易的有限自由和法律适用空间的可能性, 来论证国际私法规则在《市舶条法》中存在与否的现实状况, 以及需要关注的因素。 The development of the Maritime Silk Road over the Song and Yuan periods, along with corresponding advances in ocean transport, prompted the drafting of laws to regulate the flourishing trade. Through a careful study of historical records, especially the famous Regulations of the Customs Administration, this article explores whether international private laws existed to regulate and ensure a limited freedom of maritime commerce.

Huang Baijun 黄柏军: 南中国海上的「新会岛」——晚清爱国将领林国祥在「巡航西沙」中的历史贡献 [Xinhui Island in the South China Sea: Lin Guoxiang’s Voyage to the Xisha Islands during the Late Qing Dynasty]

宋元时期海上丝绸之路的开辟, 海上运输以及贸易的发展, 促使相应的海商立法成熟, 其中尤以《市舶条法》著名。 本文通过详细的史实资料, 描绘宋元时期两百多年海上贸易发达的具体动因。 另外通过分析海上贸易的有限自由和法律适用空间的可能性, 来论证国际私法规则在《市舶条法》中存在与否的现实状况, 以及需要关注的因素。 The development of the Maritime Silk Road over the Song and Yuan periods, along with corresponding advances in ocean transport, prompted the drafting of laws to regulate the flourishing trade. Through a careful study of historical records, especially the famous Regulations of the Customs Administration, this article explores whether international private laws existed to regulate and ensure a limited freedom of maritime commerce.

Shen Yimin 沈一民: 论唐朝对鄂霍次克海的认知 [The Tang Dynasty’s Discovery of the Sea of Okhotsk]

为了削弱突厥等北方草原部族的实力、 打击东北亚诸部族的实力, 隋唐两代开始对东北亚地区进行积极经营。 随着中原王朝与东北亚诸部族的关系日益紧密, 居于鄂霍次克海周边地区的黑水靺鞨、 窟说、 郡利部、 莫曳皆部、 驱度寐、 流鬼等部族, 渐被隋唐帝国所了解。 以这些部族为媒介, 中原王朝对鄂霍次克海的认知达到了前所未有的程度, 并出现了 “北海”、 “少海”、 “小海”等专有海洋名称以指代鄂霍次克海。 The Sui and Tang Dynasties launched expeditions deep into Northeast Asia to weaken the power of nearby steppe empires, such as the Turks. They discovered and named the Sea of Okhotsk as a result of intensive contact with tribes in the area, such as the Black Water Moge, Kushuo, Junli, Moyejie, Qudumei, and Liugui.

Tan Yuhua 谭玉华: 柏林国家图书馆藏《闽省水师各标镇协营战哨船只图说》的若干问题 [Research on the Illustrated Explanation about the Warship of All the Divisions and Brigades in the Fujian Navy]

柏林国家图书馆馆藏《闽省水师各标镇协营战哨船只图说》是记录乾隆前期福建水师战船法式的重要著作, 该书为著名美籍德裔汉学家夏德于1890年下半年出售给柏林国家图书馆的个人藏书。 《图说》载赶缯船和双篷船的则数清楚地揭示了该书的成书年代在乾隆十二年至乾隆三十四年。 该书的发现为清代战船分类命名、 战船修造和管理、 海上军事力量的演变研究提供了重要佐证。 Stored at the German National Library in Berlin, the Illustrated Explanation of All the Divisions, Brigades, and Warships in the Fujian Navy is an important resource on the naval history of Fujian during the early Qing. It has detailed information on types and functions of warships, vessel construction and management, and the development of naval capabilities. Compiled and published at Fuzhou during the early Qianlong period, the book came into the possession of the famous German-American Sinologist Friedrich Hirth, who, in turn, sold it to the German National Library in 1890.

Wu Rongqing 吴榕青, Li Guoping 李国平: 早期南澳史事钩稽 [Research on Early Historical Events in Nan’ao]

处于中国东南边陲闽粤之交南澳岛的深澳、 长沙尾澳, 至迟在南宋时已成为沟通中国东南沿海及海外贸易的两个重要港口, 同时也是宋元以来东南地区, 尤其是闽粤边界海盗之渊薮。 至明代中后期以后, 整个南澳不同方位的名称由“三澳”演变为“四澳”。 From the Song Dynasty, Shen’ao and Changshaweiao, on Nan’ao Island, which straddled the border between the two provinces of Fujian and Guangdong, became two important ports connecting the southeastern Chinese littoral to overseas trading destinations. After the Yuan, they served as a lair for pirates.

Wu Weiwei 吴巍巍, Zhang Yongqin 张永钦: 康熙时期中国天文生测绘琉球地图考——兼论钓鱼岛主权归属问题 [A Study of Ryukyu Map Mapping by Astronomical Officers of the Kangxi’s Reign: Further Analyzing the Issue of Sovereignty of Diaoyu Islands]

康熙五十八年 (1719年) , 康熙帝派遣册封使海宝、 徐葆光偕两名测量官平安、 丰盛额携欧制测量器具, 以西方传教士所传经纬度观测技术, 测绘琉球地图。 这一段历史的浪花, 不仅在中国地图史上名垂千古,也是中琉关系史和琉球史中的一段佳话。 徐葆光留世的《中山传信录》更是成为史料价值极高的一份文献, 从中还可反映出钓鱼岛及其附属岛屿之主权归属这一重要问题。 In 1719, Qing dynasty emperor Kangxi had assigned Hai Bao and Xu Baoguang (both served as Sapposhi in the imperial court) to map Ryukyu using European measuring appliance and latitude and longitude observation technologies brought by the western missionaries, together with the other two official surveyor named Pin An and Feng Sheng'e. The spoondrift of this event had shimmered in the sun on the reef which records the Chinese cartographic history, also the Sino-Ryukyu relationship and the developing progress of Ryukyu. The book, Zhongshan Chuanxin Lu, written by Xu Baoguang, had gained extremely high value of documents and historical materials, from which we can learn much about the ownership of the Diaoyu Island and its affiliated islands.

Zhang Xun 张珣: 海不扬波——妈祖与其信仰在台之传播 [The Development of the Mazu Cult in Taiwan]

宋朝在福建莆田发迹的湄州女神妈祖, 历经宋元明清的发展, 其信仰遍及中国大江南北。 本文主以《天妃显圣录》说明妈祖信仰的出现与传布, 并梳理清朝时期妈祖与台湾的开发之间的关系。 再以台湾进香仪式呈现妈祖信仰与其它神祇不同的特殊文化价值。 女神相对比起男神来说, 特别有联络不同区域的社会功能, 加上女神的回娘家谒祖的仪式, 体现了文化中追本溯源的人伦价值。 最后, 本文以妈祖信仰与台湾现代社会变迁为结论。 The cult of the goddess Mazu originated from Meizhou Island, Fujian during the Song Dynasty. By Ming and Qing times, she had become popular throughout north and south China, and among overseas Chinese communities. The first part of this article recounts the biography, legends, and miracles of Mazu. The second part focuses upon the role played by her cult in the development of Taiwan. The last part emphasizes the impact on modern Taiwan society.

Zhang Yaojun 张姚俊: 民国时期高等商船航海教育的探索与实践——以吴淞商船专科学校为例 [A Study of Advanced Merchant Marine Education during the Republ ican Period: To Wusong Merchant Marine Academy as an Example]

吴淞商船专科学校是中国第一所培养商船驾驶和轮机人员的高等学府。 作为中国高等商船航海教育的先驱, 该校在航海人才培育方面进行了许多有益的探索与实践, 为我国高等航海教育的现代化、 系统化、 专业化作出了重要贡献。 本文旨在通过对吴淞商船专科学校招生制度、 生源地、 专业、 学制与课程设置、 师资力量和教学管理、 毕业生就业趋向等问题的探讨, 以期对民国时期我国高等商船航海教育的历史经验进行初步总结和分析。 The Wusong Merchant Marine Academy was the first institution in China to train captains and marine engineers for commercial vessels. It played an important role in the modernization and professionalization of the merchant marines. This paper studies the school’s recruitment system, student backgrounds, majors and concentrations, curriculum, administration and faculty, and professional prospects for graduates. It also touches upon the broader historical experience of higher marine education during the Republican period.

Zheng Yongchang 郑永常: 郑舜功日本航海之旅 [Zheng Shungong’s Journey to Japan]

郑舜功, 新安人 (今徽州) , 曾以“大明国客”身份出使日本。 他于嘉靖三十五年(1556)从海路出航, 至嘉靖三十七年(1557)又从海路回至中国。 郑舜功以一介布衣奉命宣谕日本, 他“遴流溯风, 延回大小琉球国, 凡四十昼夜, 万死一生”, 回来却被诬入狱。 本文主要是关心郑舜功航海路径和过程, 谁委任他出使日本?为何选择他?为什么要从广州出航?明中叶从广州至日本是一条新航道, 新发现, 跟以前中日航道不一样。 本文借由《日本一鉴》的海图及说明, 重整此次航海历程和所遇到的问题。 A native of Huizhou, Anhui, Zheng Shungong served as an ambassador to Japan on behalf of the Ming, with the purpose of gathering information on piratical attacks. He set sail from Guangzhou in 1556 and returned to the port the following year after encountering stormy tempests near the Ryukyu Islands. Upon his return, he was falsely accused and imprisoned. His journey raises several intriguing questions that this article aims to address. Who appointed Zheng Shungong as ambassador and why? Why did he set sail from Guangzhou, a non-traditional and illegal route to Japan? Maps and descriptions found in Zheng’s book, A Glimpse into Japan, provides important clues to piece together the context behind his fascinating journey.

Zhu Jianqiu 朱鉴秋: 中国古航海图的基本类型 [Basic Types of Ancient Chinese Nautical Charts]

中国在宋代已有关于航海图的记载, 而现存最早的航海图是明代初期绘制的。 本文把中国古航海图分为六类, 并分析了各类航海图的特点。 Although records relating to nautical charts first appeared during the Song Dynasty, the earliest available ones date back to the Ming. The article analyzes the character of all six types of ancient nautical charts.

Kitty But 毕宛清:「明代海洋贸易、 航海术和水下考古研究新进展」国际研讨会综述

[摘要: 缺少。English abstract: lacking]

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《国家航海》第8辑 (2014年第3期)

Chen Xianbo 陈贤波: 柘林兵变与明代中後期广东的海防体制 [The Zelin Mutiny and the State of the Guangdong Coastal Defenses in the Late Ming Period]

嘉靖四十三年 (1564) , 戍守广东潮州饶平县柘林澳的水兵因缺饷叛变, 随后集合一批东莞盐徒驾船攻击省城广州, 朝野为之震动。 以往的研究多集中在当局借用澳葡兵船参与平叛方面, 或将之作为地方动乱的一部分加以讨论。 实际上, 该事件对当时和后续的军事改革均产生深刻影响, 显示出明代中后期广东海防体制的发展趋势和困境。 面对严峻的海上局势, 广东当局曾尝试雇募民兵商船取代卫所军船进行巡海备倭。 来自广东东莞的乌艚船子弟兵成为官府依赖的防海武力, 但无法持续保证制度良性运作。 柘林兵变引发的“连锁反应”, 使增置沿海水寨被提上议程, 从而促成了以水寨兵船巡海备倭的新机制。 In 1564, the naval forces stationed at Zhelin Bay in Guangdong’s Chaozhou Prefecture mutinied against the Ming government. Previous studies have primarily focused upon how the authorities employed Portuguese troops from Macao to suppress the mutiny. However, they have overlooked the far-reaching impact of the incident on the subsequent development of the late-Ming Guangdong coastal defense network. This article uses the mutiny as a window to examine the problems of coastal defense and the reforms undertaken in attempts to remedy them.

He Guowei 何国卫: 明代造船木料计价和木材材积计算 [The Prices and Quantity of Wood Used in Shipbuilding during the Ming Dynasty]

本文通过对明代《龙江船厂志》中关于造船木料计价和木材材积计算的记载的量值分析, 探索其表达形式与规律, 并推导出楠木计价、 “单板”数和楠木单板价的计算公式。 因此, 本文对研究明代造船的木作计量有一定的实用价值。 This article examines the role of wood in shipbuilding during the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) through an analysis of prices and quantities found in the Gazetteer of the Longjiang Shipyard. It pays special attention to camphor, a special type of timber especially suited to the construction of junks.

Li Dexia 李德霞: 近代早期中外海上丝绸贸易及其影响 [Chinese Silk: Overseas Trade and Its Influences in the Early Modern Time]

由于国内外形势的改变, 近代早期中国丝绸、 瓷器等传统商品的海外市场扩大, 多条海上“丝绸之路”得以开辟或拓展。 中国丝绸的海外热销, 对当时的国际社会产生了诸多影响。 本文采用历史研究法, 在参考大量外文资料的基础上, 阐述了当时中国丝绸的外销盛况, 并探讨了由此产生的一些重要影响。 在国家积极建设“丝绸之路经济带”和“21世纪海上丝绸之路”的今天, 重温这段历史颇具现实意义。 In the early modern time, the overseas market for Chinese traditional commodities such as the silk and porcelain was expanded due to the change of situations at home and abroad. Several maritime “silk roads” were thereby created or developed. The booming of the sales of Chinese silk overseas had various impacts on the international community. Applying the historical approach and referring to plenty of foreign data and literature, this article elaborates the booming of the Chinese silk and expounds some of the resulting effect. It is of practical significance to look back on this period of history today, when China is trying to construct “the silk road economic belt” and “the maritime silk road in the 21st century”.

Li Jianwei 李建纬: 台湾苗栗县妈祖庙所见“与天同功”匾的形式与历史考證 [A Study of the Plaque, “Sharing Merit with Heaven”, Found in the Mazu Shrines of Miaoli County, Taiwan]

在台湾妈祖庙现存皇帝御赐匾额中, 数量最多者莫过于“与天同功”匾额。 《清德宗实录》载, 光绪七年 (1881) 十月十五日, “ (光绪皇帝) 以神灵显应, 颁台湾各属天后庙匾额曰‘与天同功’”。 因此, 台湾妈祖庙莫不以拥有此匾为荣, 并视为取得官方认可的标志。 目前台湾所见此匾约有20余面。 非常特殊的是, 单苗栗县的妈祖庙就有7面“与天同功”匾。 本文主要从匾额风格、 工艺与历史, 试析此7面匾的文化意涵与历史意义。 Among the plaques conferred by the Qing emperors to Mazu shrines in Taiwan, over 20 of them bear the inscription “Sharing Merit with Heaven.” In 1881, the imperial court, inspired by reports of the sea goddess’s divine manifestation, ordered plaques with the inscription placed in Mazu shrines across Taiwan. The conferral of plaques was a great honor, as it represented the recognition of a shrine’s role in the religious pantheon. Seven of them bearing the inscription, “Sharing Merit with Heaven,” have been found in Miaoli County of central Taiwan. This article investigates their aesthetics and cultural and historical meaning.

Liu Anbing 刘岸冰: 交通大学与中国近代高等造船工程教育 [Jiaotong University and the Instruction of Advanced Marine Engineering in China]

为了顺应时代的发展和需求, 1943年我国高校第一个培养本科生的造船系在交通大学创建。 它继承和发扬了交通大学优良的办学传统, 紧跟国际办学步伐, 形成独特的人才培养模式并持续发展, 在建国前后培养了一大批优秀的造船工程人才, 为新中国的船舶与海洋发展建设做出了卓越贡献, 造船系也在交通大学成为特色系科, 并由此奠定其在中国高等工程教育史上的历史地位。 In 1943, Jiaotong University became the first Chinese institution of higher learning to introduce the instruction of marine engineering at the undergraduate level. This paper examines the Shipbuilding Department of Jiaotong University and its contribution to the development of marine engineering in China.

Liu Xiaohu 刘啸虎: 略探徐福东渡之弩手、 连弩与海船 [A Brief Discussion on Crossbowmen, Ballista and Ships]

徐福东渡对东亚诸国影响巨大。 本文经过考据认为:徐福出海携带的童男童女, 应该是男十七岁以下、 女十五岁以下尚不满婚龄的少年男女, 且有可能多征集自山东半岛的齐国故地; 为徐福船队提供武装保护的弓弩手, 很可能就是由船队中“童男”充任。 换言之, 秦始皇以秦军中满十五周岁而不满十七周岁的少年士卒充作“童男”, 携带弓弩等武器, 随在齐地征发的“童女”一道登船, 随徐福东渡求仙; 秦始皇猎杀“巨鱼”的“连弩”, 很可能是《墨子·备高临》中记载的连弩车, 或由这种连弩车改造后的同类远射武器。 徐福船队的弓弩手装备出海的“连弩”, 亦有可能是这种巨型强弩, 或类似的重型弩, 比如《墨子·备城门》中所记载的“转射机”; 徐福船队所乘海船, 很可能是秦汉时期的战舰“楼船”。 由这些结论观之, 徐福东渡实际上应该是达到了一场海外远征的规模。 所以, 有日本学者徐福船队乃是“武装农工集团”, 这个观点应该是正确的。 Xu Fu’s sailing had a great influence on East Asia countries. In this paper, through research and discussion, the author points that: the young boys and girls sailing with Xu Fu haven’t reached the age of marriage, the boys of which should be under seventeen years old, and the girls under fifteen years old. They may had been collected from Shandong Peninsula. The crossbowmen protecting the sailing with arms may be in these boys. In other words, Qin Shi Huang (First Emperor of Qin) may send young soldiers of Qin army who armed with crossbows to aboard as young boys with those young girls from Shandong Peninsula together to go to sailing with Xu Fu. The machine crossbow that Qin Shi Huang used to hunt "big fish" is likely to be the ballista being recorded in Mo-tse, or a similar kind of long-range weapons after transformation. The machine crossbow being equipped with crossbowmen in Xu Fu’s sailing may be the ballista as well, or some similar heavy crossbow, such as the”Zhuansheji” being recorded in Mo-tse. The ship in Xu Fu’s sailing is likely to be the warship “Louchuan” (ship with an upper deck) in Qin and Han Dynasties. From the perspective of these conclusions, Xu Fu’s sailing should be reached the scale of an overseas expedition actually. So, some Japanese scholars point out that Xu Fu’s fleet is an "armed group with peasants and craftsmen", which is reasonably.

Shan Li 单丽, Wen Zhihong 温志红, Ren Zhihong 任志宏: 黄浦江航道的疏浚与上海近代化―以技术人才和疏浚方案为中心 [The Dredging of the Huangpu River and Shanghai’s Modernization: A Study of the Technicians and Dredging Proposals]

在民国年间的黄浦江疏浚过程中, 以奈格 (John.De.Rijke) 为代表的国内外航道疏浚技术人才经过不断的实地勘测, 提出了专业的疏浚方案作为航道疏浚工程的指导, 并在此基础上不断调整完善, 最终使黄浦航道经过30多年的系统治理而大为浚深。 疏浚后的黄浦江新航道航行环境优良, 在便利大型轮船进出的同时也促进了上海港的发展, 并因之成为上海港向国际贸易大港发展的重要条件。 During the Republican period (1911-1949), a group of domestic and foreign technicians led by John De Rijke undertook the dredging of the Huangpu River in Shanghai. The project, based upon comprehensive field surveys and lasting for over 30 years, significantly deepened the channels of the waterway to allow for the sailing of large ships. These measures greatly facilitated the development of Shanghai into an international trading port and transport hub.

Janice Stargard 思鉴: 公元九到十世纪唐与黑衣大食间的印度洋贸易:需求、 距离与收益 [Demand, Distance and Profit: An Indian Ocean World in the Ninth and Tenth Century]

本文旨在研究公元九到十世纪间发生在广义印度洋区域直接或间接的海洋贸易。 笔者所讨论的区域横跨印度洋东西。 这是一片极大的海洋空间, 西起地中海, 东至中国、 日本和亚洲内部。 本文的研究目的是勾勒出一个比珍妮特·阿布-卢格霍德在《欧洲霸权之前》中所论述的前现代世界系统还要早300年的海洋网络。 这一网络比费尔南·布罗代尔在其扛鼎之作《商业之轮》中勾画的早近代系统更早500年。 在笔者所论述的网络中, 有两个互相关联的产业, 它们在技术与利润上的互动牵动着整个系统, 使之区别于此前和此后的世界性贸易网络。 这两个产业分别是中国晚唐龙窑制瓷业和黑衣大食的新炉玻璃工业。 本文的一个基本前提是这两种产品的贸易终端都不在本地, 存在远方需求, 所以其贸易有利可图。 笔者的考古证据多来自遇难货船、 古代港口、 陶瓷窑口和玻璃窑炉。 这些证据为考量该特殊时期长途海上贸易提供了原始数据。 This paper is a study of maritime trade, direct and indirect, between the eastern and western extremities of the Indian Ocean in the ninth and tenth centuries CE, encompassing the world’s largest ocean space. The web of trade studied here also extended its filaments into the Mediterranean at the western end, and into inland China, Mongolia and Tibet and Japan at the eastern end. The particular aims are to outline this vast maritime trade system embracing most of the world three centuries earlier than the pre-modern world system discussed by Janet Abu-Lughod and some five centuries before the early modern world resurrected in Fernand Braudel’s pioneering studies of The Wheels of Commerce. Changes are captured in the production techniques and volumes of two great industries, one at each extremity of the trading system, their reciprocal relations, and some of their implications for the web of trade that made it different from what went before and what came later. The industries are, ceramics made in dragon kilns in late Tang China and glass made in new furnace types in the ‘Abbasid Empire, respectively. A basic premiss of this study is that the existence of demand at a distance from the place of origin of these artifacts greatly enhanced the prices and profits of trade. Archaeological evidence assembled from wreck cargoes, ancient ports, ceramic kilns and glass-making furnaces provides the primary data for some historical and geographical considerations of this special period of long-distance maritime trade.

Yuan Xiaochun 袁晓春: 中国古船复原工艺 [The Restoration of Ancient Ships in China]

中国是古船的发现大国, 已发现古船100余艘, 位居世界前列。 中国古代造船与复原工艺是优秀的海洋文化遗产。 但随着铁壳船的普遍使用, 古代造船与复原工艺行将退出历史舞台, 而学术界缺乏应有的关注。 本文从中国古船的测绘、 拆分、 编号、 搬运等方面着手, 对古船的龙骨、 底板、 舱壁、 桅座、 肋骨、 外板、 甲板等复原工艺, 复原中使用铁钉、 铁锔加固, 艌料密封、 桐油封护船体等技术, 需要添加船材问题以及中国古船舱壁结构的演变等问题进行探究, 旨在开展中国古代造船与复原工艺的研究与传承。 China enjoys a rich shipbuilding tradition. It leads the world in the discovery of ancient ships, with over a hundred excavated thus far. However, the widespread use of modern steel vessels has endangered traditional shipbuilding techniques and increased the difficulty of restoring the earlier wooden vessels. This article investigates the art of restoring ancient ships, with the hope of bringing this understudied cultural heritage to a wider audience.

Zhang Chonggen 张崇根: 东海古流求考辨 [Examination of “Old Ryukyu”in the East China Sea]

通过对唐朝至元朝时期中国史籍记载的古流求的分析考证, 本文认为古流求主要指台湾岛, 而与中国浙江、 福建、 广东, 朝鲜、 和东南亚有贸易往来的流求, 指的才是现在的冲绳群岛。 明代称琉球群岛为大琉球, 称台湾岛为小琉球。 Through a study of the “Chronicles of Ryukyu” in the Sui shu and historical records from the Tang (618-907) and Yuan (1271-1368) Dynasties, this paper shows the distinction between the terms “Old Ryukyu” and “Ryukyu.” In particular, “Old Ryukyu” referred only to the island of Taiwan. “Ryukyu,” on the other hand, specifically meant Okinawa, which had a trading relationship with the southeastern Chinese coast, Korea, and Southeast Asia. By the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644), Okinawa became “Greater Ryukyu,” while Taiwan was called “Lesser Ryukyu”.

Zhou Yunzhong 周运中: 晚清江浙人涉海至台湾贸易的新史料辨析 [New Evidence on the Activities of Jiangsu and Zhejiang Merchants in Taiwan during the Late Ming Dynasty]

明代湖州人慎懋赏《四夷广记》记载,杭州人到台湾北部鸡笼、 淡水贸易硫土, 并在福建海澄县加其制成硫磺成品。 鸡笼即今基隆附近出产硫磺的大屯火山群, 淡水是台北的淡水河, 海澄县在今漳州龙海的海澄镇。 万历年间明朝发放鸡笼、 淡水船引, 开放商船从漳州到台湾贸易, 而且明确了台湾硫土的税率。 杭州人卢之颐也提及鸡笼硫土在漳州加的加工, 说明慎懋赏的记载是可信的。 明代到台湾贸易的不仅有华南人, 还有江浙人, 台湾和中国东南各地一直有密切联系。 In his book, The General Records of the Barbarians in the Four Directions, the late-Ming writer Shen Maoshang described the journeys of merchants from Hangzhou to Jilong and Danshui, on the northern coast of Taiwan. They went primarily to procure sulfur, which they then processed by adding beef tallow. During the late sixteenth century, the Ming government specially issued passes for merchants to trade between the Fujianese port of Zhangzhou and Jilong and Danshui, and levied taxes on Taiwanese sulfur. This article argues that, already in the Ming, Taiwan enjoyed close economic ties with the Mainland coast. Moreover, trade took place not only with Fujian, but also farther north, with the provinces of the Yangzi River Delta.

Zhu Yingui 朱荫贵: 试论轮船航运兴起前的清代木船业 [A Discussion on the Wooden Ship Industry of Qing Dynasty before the Rise of Steamer Shipping]

清代自康熙年间开放海禁后, 直到鸦片战争时为止, 中国沿海和内河木船业均保持了发展趋势。 沿海木船业以长江口为界分两大类:行驶于北洋的沙船和行驶于南阳的闽广船。 内河木船数量多, 种类杂。 沿海和内河木船成为各省及海外商品交流的主要运输工具, 同时也是漕粮北运的主要承担者。 木船的制度和管理, 也不断发展演变, 具有浓厚的中国特色。 Since the ban on foreign trade was removed during the reign of Emperor Kangxi in Qing Dynasty, up to the breakout of Opium War, the wooden ship industry in both coastal and inland areas had maintained the trend of development. The wooden ship industry in coastal area has been demarcated by the estuary of Yangtze River into two types: the large junks in the north sea and Fujian-Canton ships in the south sea. The wooden ships of inland rivers were not only in large number, but also in great variety. The wooden ships have been the main transportation tools for exchanges of commodities from different provinces and abroad, as well as the common carriers for transporting the tribute grains to the north. The institution and administration of wooden ships also continuously developed, which represents strong Chinese characters.

Angela Schottenhammer 萧婷:《纵横:东亚世界交流史研究》简介 [Crossroads: An Introduction]

[摘要: 缺少。English abstract: lacking]

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《国家航海》第7辑 (2014年第2期)

Cen Ling 岑玲: 清朝官员与漂流到中国的琉球船乘员的言语接触 [Language Contact between Qing Dynasty Government Officials and Ryukyu’s Drifting Ship-crew]

早在中国明朝初期, 琉球国的历史上就有了两国交流的记录。 从17世纪开始到19世纪后半期, 有很多艘琉球船漂流到了中国大陆的沿海地区。 关于这些琉球船的漂流史料, 在中国第一历史档案馆编集的《清代中琉关系档案选编》等档案史料中都有所发现, 其中从清朝的乾隆时代开始到光绪时代为止的这段时期, 漂流到清朝中国的琉球船数量特别多。 本文从文化交涉的角度对清朝官员与漂流到中国的琉球船成员的言语接触问题进行研究。 The communication between Ryukyu Islands and China has a long history. It has been said that the history has begun even at the beginning of Ming Dynasty according to Ryukyu’s historical documents. From the 17th century to the end of the 19th century, many Ryukyu boats drifted to costal area of China mainland. We can refer to these historical documentation in Selected documentation of China- Ryukyu relations in Qing Dynasty which was published by China FIRST Historical Archives. Lots of drifting ship-crew were written in this book from Qian Long era to Guang Xu era of Qing Dynasty. This paper will focus on Language contact between Qing Dynasty government officials and Ryukyu’s Drifting Ship-crew, and try to discuss this issue in cross-culture point of view.

Chen Jiarong 陈佳荣:《指南正法》完成年代上限新证 [New Evidence on the Completion of Zhi Nan Zheng Fa]

本文重考《指南正法》的完成年代, 根据书中的“天后”一词, 认为该书完成年代应在1685年以后。 This paper examines the completion of Zhi Nan Zheng Fa, According to "Tian Hou(Queen of Heaven)" the term in the book, the authors argues that the book was completed after 1685.

Guo Panxi 郭泮溪: 胶东半岛早期航海活动初探 [An Exploration of Early Navigational Activity in Jiaodong Peninsula]

早在距今5000年前后, 胶东半岛的先民们已经熟练掌握了跨海交流所必须具备的航海技术。 航海能力的提高推动了胶东半岛海外贸易的发展。 齐桓公时齐国与朝鲜半岛之间的海上贸易, 大多是通过莱国间接进行的。 到了春秋后期, 胶东半岛的琅邪、 斥山、 转附等港口已经先后成为齐国的主要海上贸易口岸。 As early as 5000 years ago, residents in Jiaodong Peninsula had mastered the skills of navigation necessary for cross-ocean exchanges. These skills promotes the development of foreign trade here. During the regin of Duke Huan of Qi, most of the commercial trade between the State of Qi and the Korean Peninsula was conducted through the State if Lai. By the late Spring and Autumn Period, ports like Langye, Chishan and Zhuanfu in Jiaozhou Peninsula had become major commercial trade ports of the State of Qi.

He Guowei 何国卫: 从珠海宝镜湾遗址看岭南史前舟船文化 [The Prehistoric Boat-culture in South of the Five Ridges Based on Zhuhai Baojing Bay Site]

珠海宝镜湾文化遗址出土的石网坠、 石锚、 具波浪纹饰的陶器与岩画等, 尤其是摩崖岩画上出现的船舶形象图案, 无不生动反映了岭南海岛先民的海上生活, 强烈地透露出浓厚的史前岭南舟船文化气息。 岭南地区的珠江与黄河、 长江共同孕育了中国的舟船文化。 There are many interesting discoveries in Zhuhai Baojing Bay site, such as stone net sinkers, stone anchors, sea wave patterns on the pottery, especially the boat pictures on the cliff carvings, reflecting our ancestors’ life at sea in South of the Five Ridges. This article discussed some details about the boat-culture. These discoveries from Pearl River area should be regarded as a part of the great boat-culture of ancient China, just like the areas of the Yellow River and Yangtze River.

Lin Han 林瀚: 韩江水路交通与内河木质民船研究 [The Research of Hanjiang River Waterway Transport and Wooden River Vessels]

自宋代潮盐北运以后, 韩江日益成为沟通闽西南、 赣南、 粤东的主干道。 千百年来, 因韩江的沟通, 闽粤边界进行着频繁的贸易往来, 而在民船的往返过程中, 流域内部的人、 物与文化也得以不断的流动与交融。 本文拟就从方志、 文集、 碑刻、 民国调查资料的记载中, 对韩江水路状况及疏凿演进做一梳理, 同时就航行于汀、 梅、 潮三地沿河各圩镇的木质民船作初步的梳理与分析, 希望藉此窥探昔日韩江水运网络图景之概貌。 With more and more Chaozhou salt shipped to the north of China, Hanjiang River gradually became the main stems which connect the transport of Southwestern Fujian, Southern Jiangxi and Eastern Guangdong during Song Dynasty. For thousands of years, connected by Hanjiang River, the border of Fujian and Guangzhou turned into an active place of trading, people, goods and culture flowed and integrated with each other frequently through private vessels. This paper intends to explore the transportation and digging history of Hanjiang River by researching local records, collections, inscriptions and survey data of Republic of China. The result, combined with the research and analysis of the wooden river vessels which were sailing along the rivers of Tingzhou, Meizhou and Chaozhou, would help to make a picture of what Hanjiang River network looks like back in those days.

Liu Yonglian 刘永连: 地方与外交——从东沙岛问题看广东地方政府在主权交涉中的作用 [Local and Foreign: Study on the Role of Guangdong Local Government in Diplomatic Negotiations for Our Territorial Soverrteignty in Dongsha Islands]

在边疆问题研究中, 地方政府的作用至今尚未引起学界重视。 本文选取清朝末年中日两国围绕东沙群岛之争所进行的交涉这一问题, 从中剖析广东地方政府在此交涉中所起到的作用。 晚清民国是中国外交制度在西方政治文化影响下向现代转化的重要时期, 广东督抚和两广外交公署等在中国与日本政府和民间力量所进行的多层面交涉中都起到不可忽视的作用, 为成功收回东沙群岛提供了外交机制上的诸多有利条件。 民国以后东沙群岛再无争端, 其成功经验可以为目前我国解决西沙、 中沙、 南沙等南海诸岛问题提供历史借鉴。 In study of frontier problems, the role of local government is not yet to the attention of the academia circles. In this article, I will selects the problem that China dispute with Japan around Dongsha islands (Pratas Islands) at the end of Qing Dynasty, to analyze the Guangdong local government's role in the negotiations. The end of Qing Dynasty and the Republic of China was an important time that Chinese diplomatic institutions transformated to modern institutions under the influence of the western political culture. In this period, Guangdong government had the effect which couldn’t be ignored in multi-levels representation between China government and Japan government and Japanese non-governmental forces, and provided some favorable conditions for China withdrawing Dongsha islands successfully in foreign mechanism. Dispute about Dongsha islands had been not occurred after the period of Republic of China, its successful experience can provide history lessons for our country to solve problems in the islands of the South China Sea in the current, such as Xisha, Zhongsha and Nansha.

Peng Bangben 彭邦本: 清代巴蜀的妈祖崇拜与闽籍移民 [Worship of Mazu and Fujian Immigrants into Sichuan Province in Qing Dynasty]

妈祖原本为宋代以来东南沿海地区信众日益广泛的神灵, 在清代长达百年的“湖广填四川”移民大潮中, 妈祖信仰由福建籍移民传入巴蜀地区, 其载体天后宫或曰福建会馆纷纷出现在城邑村镇中, 以至在四川省的大多数州、 县都有分布, 成为当地一道醒目靓丽的人文景观, 并在清代、 民国的地方社会生活中产生了相当大的影响。 本文对清代逐渐成为巴蜀文化有机组成部分的四川妈祖文化载体天后宫和闽籍移民族群进行初步探讨。 Mazu has been increasingly worshipped by people living along China Southeast coast since Song Dynasty. During the long-lasted(nearly one hundred years) movement historically named Huguang Filling in Sichuan, Mazu belief was brought by Fujian immigrants and spread widely in the west land of China -Bashu area. As the result, more and more Queen of Heaven Palaces also called Fujian provincial guilds were set up among villages and towns, even in most counties and states of Sichuan Province, becoming remarkable landscape in local culture, which played important impacts on the social life from Qing Dynasty to modern China. This paper aims to explore Queen of Heaven Palace, the symbol of Mazu culture, gradually became one part of j Sichuan culture system and its direct relationship with Fujian immigrants

Roderich Ptak [罗德里希·普塔克], Xiao Wenshuai 肖文帅: 两个“地中海”之间的台湾岛:由分界标志变为桥梁 [Taiwan between Two “Mediterraneans”:From Barrier to Bridge]

本文主要分析台湾岛在两个海域——中国东海和南海之间扮演的角色, 而这两者有点类似于欧洲的地中海。 在早期历史中, 台湾岛曾经只是划分这两个空间的地理标志, 这意味着它在国际贸易中没有扮演什么重要的角色。 然而, 福建人的崛起使得台湾岛逐步走上经济交流的舞台。 此后的一个短暂阶段, 荷兰人和西班牙人的侵略打乱了这一和平进程。 台湾岛因此成为早期全球权力较量中的一块“多米诺骨牌”。 后来, 由于郑氏家族的活动以及清朝对全岛的统治, 台湾岛经历了新的转型。 但是跟从前一样, 它基本上是“服务”于福建人的。 The article associates Taiwan with the maritime world of East Asia, chief addressing its between two maritime zones, the East and South China Seas, both of which were somewhat similar to the European Mediterranean. In the early stages of history, Taiwan was like a geographical dividing mark between these two spaces, which means that it did not function as a major player in international trade. However, with the rise of the Fujianese, it gradually moved onto the stage of commercial exchange. Thereafter, for a brief period in time, Dutch and Spanish activities disrupted this peaceful process and Taiwan became a “domino stone” in the early global contest for power. Later, with the activities of the Zheng clan and the establishment of Qing rule over the island, Taiwan went through new transformations, but at the same time was back “on track”, essentially “serving” Fujianese needs.

Matsuura Akira 松浦章, Li Haitao 李海涛: 日清汽船会社与中国 [Nisshin Kisen Company and China]

甲午中日战后, 根据《马关条约》, 日本获得了在中国内河开辟汽船航线的特权, 开辟的航线有大东汽船会社的江南航线、 大阪商船会社的长江航线、 日本邮船会社的长江航线及湖南汽船会社的以汉口为中心的湖南航线。 根据日本国策, 1907年(光绪三十三年、 明治四十年)成立日清汽船会社。 日清汽船会社是在合并上述四公司航线的基础上成立的, 直到1939年被东亚海运会社吞并为止, 其一直主营中国国内的内河航线和沿海航线。 该公司在近代中国活跃了长达30多年, 但其真实情况却鲜为人知。 关于主营中国航线的日清汽船会社是如何在日本政府的援助下开辟中国航运市场, 本文将就此展开论述。 After Sino-Japanese war, Japan won the privilege to open steamboat routes in China’s inland from Treaty of Shimonoseki, such as southern route (Big East Steamboat Club),the Yangtze River route (Osaka Shosen Company and Nippon Yusen Kaisha) and Hunan route around Hankou(Konan Kisen Company). According to Japan's national policy, Nisshin Kisen Company was established in 1907 . until 1939’s annexation by Toa Kaiun (East Asian maritime) Company, Nisshin Kisen Company which was based on the merge of the above four companies had managed Chinese domestic and coastal routes for 30 years, but the truth was rarely known by people. This article will discuss Nisshin Kisen Company how to run these routes in China with the assistance of Japanese government.

Xie Ya'nan 谢雅楠: 清末广西梧州中日贸易再研究 [A Reinvestigation of the Sino-Japanese Trade in Wuchow of Kwangsi during the End of Qing

Dynasty]珠江是中国南部非常重要的河流之一, 流域面积很广阔, 其干流名为西江, 是此流域中水运最为发达的江段。 西江对清朝末期及其之后时代的对外贸易中发挥了重要的作用,其门户之地便是广西的梧州。 梧州因《中英续议缅甸条约》于1897年辟为通商口岸, 但在这之前的1895年中日甲午战争的议和谈判时, 日本就已开始注目梧州, 并谋求梧州的开埠与西江的通航。 清朝末期, 向广西省内流通的大部分外国产品都经由梧州转运而流入到内地。 日本产品在梧州市场占据了除棉、 毛织物之外的外国产品中的最大贸易额。 明治时期的日本领事报告留下了许多关于此段历史的记录。 并且, 当时广西林业资源丰富, 有大量樟树分布于广西境内。 樟树可提取出樟脑, 樟脑是20世纪作为塑料代用品的赛璐珞(俗称假象牙)及无烟火药的原料, 是当时世界上需求庞大的物资之一, 在人类发展史上拥有极为重要的地位。 当时世界樟脑市场由日本独占, 而中国民间也发展着樟脑业, 日本认为中国是其不容忽视的对手。 清末时期, 广西也开始了发展樟脑产业, 这些举动引起了日本的注意, 并在领事报告中发表了不少关于广西樟脑产业的记录。 本文旨在以日本领事报告、 日本外务省外交记录等日语史料为主, 探讨清末时期日本与梧州之间的贸易竞争与往来的历史。 The Pearl River(Zhujiang River) is one of the very important rivers in southern China which covers a large basin area. One of its tributaries is named the West River(Xijiang River), where the basin is the most developed section of the whole river waterway. The West River has played an important role in the foreign trade at the end of Qing Dynasty and later times. Wuchow(Wuzhou) is the gateway of Kwangsi(Guangxi) province. Wuchow was turned into a trading port in 1897 because of The Special Article of the Burmese Frontier Convention , but actually before the negotiations of Sino-Japanese War in 1895, Japan had focused on Wuchow and also had begun to seek trade opening and sea transportation with Wuchow. At the late Qing Dynasty, most of foreign products circulated into Kwangsi were inflow to the mainland via Wuchow. Japanese products accounted the most among the foreign products in Wuchow market except cotton and wool fabric products, which was recorded by the consular reports in Meiji Japan. And, there were rich forestry resources in Kwangsi at that time, and plenty of camphor trees distributed in Kwangsi. Camphor can be extracted from camphor trees and was the raw material of plastic celluloid (also known as false ivory) and smokeless powder in the 20th century, and there was great demand in the world. It played a significant role in the development of human beings. At that time Japan empowered primarily the camphor market but China folk also developed that. So Japan thought China couldn’t be ignored as rivals. At the end of Qing Dynasty, Kwangsi started to develop camphor industry, which was noticed by Japan and Japan published a lot about the camphor industry in Guangxi in the consular reports. Being based on the Japanese consular reports and Japanese historical materials from Japanese Foreign Ministry diplomatic records, this paper was mainly to explore the history of trade between Japan and Wuchow at the end of Qing Dynasty.

Wan Ming 万明: 海洋史研究的五大热点

2001年5月,联合国缔约国文件指出:“21世纪是海洋世纪.”2012年,党的十八大明确提出了“建设海洋强国”的实现中华民族伟大复兴的重要战略规划. 中国拥有漫长的海岸线和广袤的海洋国土,既是东亚的大陆国家,又是太平洋西岸的海洋国家;是一个海洋大国,也曾经是一个海洋强国.根据考古发掘的成果,中国航海先民的海上实践已有7000~8000年的悠久历史. [English abstract: lacking]

Wang Zhumin 王竹敏: 20世纪前半叶泰国华文报刊所见之中国商品的广告 [Advertisements of Chinese Products from Thailand Chinese Newspaper in the First Part of the 20th Century]

华人移民泰国历史悠久, 尤以潮州人为著。 当年, 移民泰国的潮州人印证了“凡是有海水的地方, 就有华侨的足迹”这一事实。 尤其是17世纪到20世纪初, 中国广东福建的潮汕人, 几乎没有间断的往泰国移民。 泰国的华人社会也随着华人的不断涌入而逐步发展起来, 作为海外华侨华人社会重要支柱的华人商业也经历了从无到有的艰难过程。 广告活动作为商业活动的一部分, 是研究当时华商在泰国进出口商贸发展动向的重要资料之一。 本文主要以泰国国立图书馆所藏之1925年-1935年的泰国华文报刊中所见到的近500例中国广告为对象进行探讨, 希望能够解明当时华人商业活动的状况以及华人消费的习惯。 It has been a long history for Chinese immigrants of Thailand, especially those from Chaozhou. The fact that” Where there is sea, there are overseas footprint” was perfectly demonstrated by Chaozhou people in those days. The phenomenon that Chao Shan people moved from Fujian Province and Guangdong Province of China to Thailand without interruption, was particularly obvious during 17th to 20th century. The scale of Chinese Community in Thailand grew large gradually with constant influx of immigrants. The Chinese business, which later became the base of overseas Chinese Community, endured a tough process of growing from nothing. As a part of commercial activities, the advertising campaign was one of the most important materials to study Chinese businessmen of Sino-Thai Trade. The article studied approximately 500 advertisements of Chinese products from 1925 to 1935 in Thailand Chinese newspaper collected in the National Library of Thailand. The purpose of article is to find out the commercial activities and consuming habit of Chinese immigrants in Thailand at that time.

Zhou Zhongjian 周中坚: 马六甲:古代南海交通史上的辉煌落日 [Malacca: The Glorious Sunset of the Transportation History of Ancient South-sea]

在古代南海交通史上, 沿着主要航道马六甲海峡和巽他海峡, 先后形成不同时期的航运中心。 从扶南时期的顿逊, 到室利佛逝时期的巴邻旁, 再到满者百夷时期的图班, 最后到古代史末期的马六甲。 马六甲王国只存在一百多年(1400-1511), 但却迅速攀到繁荣的顶点。 它东通中国, 西通印度和阿拉伯, 近通南海诸国, 船舶辐辏, 商务繁忙, 成为新兴的南海交通中心和伊斯兰教东传的南海总站。 1511年, 葡萄牙殖民者攻陷马六甲。 马六甲的陷落标志着古代南海交通史和东南亚古代史的终结。 马六甲王国生命短暂, 但却在古代南海交通史上留下永恒的落日辉煌。 In the transportation history of ancient South-sea, along the main channel of Malacca Strait and Sunda Strait, formed the navigation centers in different periods successively. Malacca Kingdom begun from Tun-sun during Funan period to Pelembang during srivijava period, to Tuban during Majapahit, till Malacca during the last period of Ancient history. Malacca Kingdom existed only more than one hundred years (1400-1511), but it still climbed rapidly up to the prosperous top. Connecting China easterly, India and Arabia westerly, countries of South-sea nearly where the ships were converged and the business was busy, it became the new navigation center of South-sea and general station of Islam’s spread easterly. In 1511, Portugal colonist occupied Malacca. The fall of Malacca marked the end of the transportation history of ancient South-sea and ancient history of South-east Asia. The life of Malacca Kingdom was very short, but left forever the glorious of the setting sun.

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《国家航海》第6辑 (2014年第1期)

Xie Chen 谢忱:《福建沿海航务档案》(嘉庆朝)的史料价值 [On the Value of Fujian Coastal Navigational Files (Jiaqing Period)]

《福建沿海航务档案》 (钞本) 辑录了流落民间的清嘉庆年间官方档案。 其中有禀文、 咨文、 奏折、 结式、 船照、 料照等档案资料, 反映了清嘉庆年间福建沿海的造船规矩、 船只运行的规章制度、 中国出使琉球船只的活动、 闽台贸易与移民的关系、 漂风难民、 班兵遇险等, 对清代福建地区航海造船诸问题的研究具有重要的史料价值。 Fujian Coastal Navigational Files (transcript) collects the official files which drifted out in the civilians during the Jiaqing period of the Qing Dynasty. Among these files, the official reports and Documents about shipping and navigation, which are of great historical valur in the study of the navigation and ship-making in Fujian during the Qing Dynasty, reflects the regulations of ship-making and navigation, the navigation and trading in Fujian and Taiwan, the shipwreck survivals, the seamen in distress, ect.

Liu Dake 刘大可: 古代山东海上航线开辟与对外交流述略 [The Opening up of the Sea Routes and Foreign Communications in Ancient Shandong]

古代山东沿海居民远涉重洋, 北达辽东, 南下江淮, 东抵朝日, 开辟出了山东的海上通道。 很可能在春秋战国时期就已开辟了山东海疆北岸与辽东半岛的海上航线。 汉代的山东与辽东已经明确有通航往来。 此后, 海路往来一直是鲁辽两地居民交流的通道。 金朝为远征南宋开通了山东到天津的航线。 山东沿海通往江苏、 浙江、 福建、 广东的海上航线, 史称南路航线, 很早也已开辟。 西晋以后, 山东航海者大批南下江浙。 北宋时期, 山东登州港开出驶向广东潮州的直达海船。 明清时期因海禁, 山东出海航道多受阻。 朝日与山东半岛很早就有海上往来。 汉代以后, 史籍中有山东沿海航行至朝鲜半岛的记录。 唐代山东开辟出由半岛东端越海直达朝鲜半岛的最近航线。 宋代山东驶往朝鲜和日本的船只都采用跨海直航的方式。 明清时期, 山东与朝日的海上航线因受海禁政策的影响, 往来一度大为减少。 早期的山东海疆居民大多沿着海岸线南北航行, 通过简单的交易各自换取所需的生活物资。 The ancient Shandong coastal residents traveled across many seas, north to the Yangtze River and Huaihe River, east to Korea and Japan, As early as in the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Period, they might have opened up the sea routes between the northern coast of Shangdong and Liaodong Peninsula. This maritime connections had been proved by historical data during the Han Dynasty. Since then, the sea traffic has been the means of intercourse between the people of Shandong and Liaodong. In order to conquer the Southern Song Dynasty, the Jin Dynasty opened the Shandong to Tianjin route. The sea routes from Shandong to Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Fujian and Guangdong were called southern Routes. Since the Western Jin Dynasty, a large number of Shandong mariners came to Jiangsu and Zhejiang. In the Song Dynasty, the ships sailed from Dengzhou Harbour to Guangdong Chaozhou . During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, Shandong sea channels were hindered because of the ban on maritime trade. On the other hand, Shandong Peninsula had long connections with Korea and Japan by the sea. After the Han Dynasty, the sailings from Shandong to Korean Peninsula were recorded in historical documents. In the Tang Dynasty, Shandong opened the nearest sea routes from the Peninsula easternmost to Korean Peninsula. The Shandong ships sailed to Korea and Japan all used the direct mode. But due to the ban on maritime trade, this connections greatly reduced in the Ming and Qing Dynasties. Early Shandong coastal residents mostly sailed along the coast, exchanging the required materials by simple transactions.

Liu Fengming 刘凤鸣: 汉武帝巡海与汉帝国“环黄海圈”的形成 [Han Wudi’s Visit to the Costal Area and the Development of Circle around Yellow Sea]

汉武帝在完成统一大业之后, 十次“东巡海上”考察东部沿海一带, 其目的一是祭海求神、 寻访仙迹, 但更重要的一点是想借助神权的力量来达到巩固东部海疆的目的。 汉武帝遣楼船军渡海东征朝鲜, 扩展疆土, 形成了汉帝国的“环黄海圈”, 也带动了“环黄海圈”航海交通与贸易的繁荣。 After winning the wars of unification, Han Wudi, the emperor of the Han Dynasty had successively made ten visits to the coastal area in eastern China. These eastward tours were aimed to worship various gods and search for immortality, but more importantly, to safeguard the sovereignty of Han in the eastern territory and to consolidate the imperial power by means of religious authority. Han Wudi dispatched an fleet consisting of boats with a watch tower (Louchuan in Chinese) to further expand his territory to ancient Korea in the east through military campaigns. These military expansion lead to further development in coastal areas around the Yellow Sea, forming a Circle around Yellow Sea and contribute to the boom of maritime trade in this region.

Wu Weiwei 吴巍巍: “海上丝绸之路”与明清时期西方人在闽台地区的文化活动初探 [“Maritime Silk Road” and the Cultural Activity of Occidental at the Area of Fujian–Taiwan in Ming-Qing Dynasty]

“海上丝绸之路”作为古代东西方贸易交通的大动脉, 在地理交通层面沟通着东西方世界。 在东西方商品贸易活动的基础上, “海上丝绸之路”还承载着中西文化交流的“使命”, 西方人藉此积极开展对华文化交流。 明清时期, 西方人在福建、 台湾等东南沿海地区的文化活动成为其中极为重要的组成部分, 映射着大航海时代西方的殖民扩张精神及对东方的文化探索与考察的强烈欲望。 As the main artery of Archean Western-Eastern trade and traffic, “Maritime Silk Road” communicated the mutual intercourse between Western-Eastern worlds at the aspect of geographical traffic. Based on the activities of Western-Eastern commodity exchange, “Maritime Silk Road” also bared the weight of the “ship” which means China-Occident’s cultural intercommunion. Occidental developed cultural intercommunion to China zealously by this way. The cultural activities of Occident at Fujian and Taiwan sea area made up of one of the most important parts in the China-Occident’s cultural intercommunion. This complexion reflected western colonial expansion and exploration in the “Great Times of Navigation”.

Ma Guang 马光: 晚清民初广东外国鸦片的进口与税收 [The Importation and Taxation of Foreign Opium in Guangdong in Late Qing and Early Republic China]

本文通过利用广东境内各个海关洋关的资料, 对晚清民初时期经由洋关进入广东的外国鸦片数量做了一个详细的统计, 并分析其复杂的进口量变动原因。 通过比较分析鸦片税厘占海关收入的比重, 本文揭示了鸦片对于海关财政收入的重要性。 Based on historical materials of foreign maritime customs in Guangdong, the paper studied foreign opium imported into Guangdong through foreign maritime customs in late Qing Dynasty and early Republic of China, and analyzed the complicated reasons of the change of its amount in different periods. The paper pointed out that opium was one of the most important sources in the revenue of foreign maritime customs in China.

Qu Jinliang 曲金良: 郑和下西洋之前的中国造船与航海技术 [Chinese Shipbuilding and Voyaging Technologies before Zheng He’s Time]

郑和下西洋是15世纪初期明朝政府进行的国家大造船与大航海行动。 对这一世界航海史上的伟大创举, 对当时的造船、 航海技术水平, 尤其是郑和船队中最大号“宝船”的规模尺寸问题、 郑和船队最远到达地区的问题, 尽管史籍文献凿凿有载, 但中外学界至今存在疑问。 这是由于对郑和之前自先秦到明初的中国造船历史与航海技术水平不甚了了, 近现代以来中国崇拜西方“船坚炮利”, 抛弃了中国传统造船技术和航海方式所致。 中国造船、 航海有着8000年悠久的历史, 自古以来不仅在环中国海上航行穿梭着中国的大船, 而且在印度洋上, 也至迟自汉代就穿梭航行着中国的大船了。 其船舶规模尺寸之大、 其船队航海之远, 即使仅从已有的文献记载来看, 也至迟到宋元时代就已经接近郑和下西洋的水平了。 何况郑和下西洋是国家组织实施的大航海行为。 其船舶制造、 航海水平是中华民族8000年悠久历史和丰厚文化积淀的结晶。 Zheng He’s voyage in the early 15th century Ming Dynasty was the greatest national event of shipbuilding and voyages in the world history. However, as to its level of prevailing shipbuilding and voyaging technology, especially as to the scale size of the biggest “Treasure Ship” of Zheng He’s fleet, and the fleet’s farthest reaches in the world at that time, the Chinese and foreign scholars are still in doubt though there loads many historical records literature. This is because the Chinese long history of shipbuilding and maritime technology level pre-Zheng time have not been clearly discovered, Chinese worship of the West “ships and armament”, and abandoned the traditional Chinese way of shipbuilding and maritime due since the modern time. Chinese shipbuilding and navigation has a long history of 8000 years. China’s ships sailed not only around China Seas since ancient times, but also aound the Indian Ocean at least since the Han Dynasty. In China, the large-scale size of the vessels, the fleet sailing levels and far reaches, even if only according the existing literature, were close to the level of Zheng He’s voyage up to the Song Dynasty. Moreover, since Zheng He’s voyage was the national action of the world’s biggest country Ming, so the national organization and implementation of the behavior of shipbuilding and navigation technology, were the gather of Chinese 8000 years history of rich shipbuilding and voyages heritage of crystal.

Liao Dake 廖大珂: 16~19世纪初西方文献中的南澳 [Nanao in the Western Historical Documents during 16th - Early 19th Century]

16、 17世纪, 南澳走私贸易兴起, 成为中外私商的贸易的据点, 从而在西方文献中留下了丰富的记载。 在西方文献中, 南澳最初是指以南澳岛为中心的海域和沿海地区, 后来随着葡萄牙人退出闽浙海域返回广东沿海活动, 其才用来专指南澳岛。 进入18世纪后, 由于南澳对外贸易的衰落, 南澳已很少见于西方人的记载, 向西方人介绍南澳的主要是根据传教士的资料而制作的西方地图, 其名称也随之发生了变化。 19世纪初, 由于西方列强加强对中国的殖民侵略, 南澳重新进入了西方人的视野。 西方文献对南澳的记载, 不仅反映了西方人对南澳的认识, 同时也是南澳海外贸易发展变化的历史见证。 During 16th - 17th century, with the rise of smuggling trade, Nanao developed into a stronghold of Chinese and foreign private businessmen for trade, which left a rich records in Western literatures. The Westerner originally used Lamao to described the Nanao Island-centric waters and coastal areas. Then with the Portuguese exited the Fujian and Zhejiang coast and returned to the Guangdong coast, Lamao referred specifically to the Nanao Island. In the 18th century, Nanao was rather rarely mentioned in the western records due to the decline of foreign trade of Nanao, so introduction of Nanao to the west was mainly western maps made according to the data of missionaries and its name had been changed. In the early 19th century, due to the colonial aggressions of Western powers on China, Nanao re-entered the westerner's vision. The western Record on the Nanao not only reflects the western understanding of Nanao, but also is the historical testimony of the developments and changes of the Nanao’s overseas trade.

Li Jinming 李金明: |明代后期漳州月港开禁与“南澳Ⅰ号” [The Opening of the Moon Port of Zhangzhou in the Late Ming Danasty and Nanao No. Ⅰ Ancient Ship]

明代后期漳州月港部分开放海禁后, 众多的私人海外贸易船从月港出航到东西洋贸易, 船上装载着大量外销到欧洲各地的中国瓷器。 这些瓷器有相当一部分经由荷兰东印度公司转运到欧洲, 为的是满足欧洲市场对中国瓷器的需求。 2007年12月, 在广东山头南澳出水的明代沉船“南澳Ⅰ号”, 船上装载有大量的漳州窑瓷器。 该沉船可能与月港的开禁, 以及漳州窑瓷器的外销有着密切的联系。 Since the conditional opening of the Moon Port of Zhangzhou in the late Ming Dynasty, plenty of private sampans went abroad to be engaged in overseas trade, loading with Chinese porcelain in abundance to be sold in Europe. Quite a part of the porcelain was transshipped by the Dutch East India Company to Europe to meet the requirements of European market for Chinese porcelain. The Nanao No. Ⅰ ancient ship of the Ming Dynasty was surfaced in Nanao, Shantou in Kwangtung in December 2007. It was loaded with a great deal of porcelain produced in the kilns in Zhangzhou. Possibly the ancient ship was closely related to the opening of the Moon Port and the overseas trade of porcelain produced in the kilns in Zhangzhou.

Wang Yiping王怡苹: “南澳Ⅰ号”沉船中景德镇外销青花瓷器的制作时代探究 [Study of Export Blue-and-White Porcelain Produced Era by Jingdezhen Kiln on Nanao No. Ⅰ Ancient Ship]

对于“南澳Ⅰ号”的航行起点与最后的目的地究竟在何处, 船体的结构模式原貌, 船舶权究竟属于谁, 船舱内载运的商货的货源地与生产地为何处, 什么因素致使长27、 宽7.8米的船身没入27米深的海底等等疑问的解答, 有助于揭开古代南海的商贸活动面貌与海上丝陆东西航线交会点的商港位置、 历史地理演变等问题的真实情况。 “南澳Ⅰ号”隐含了解开历史疑团的关键信息, 此一全面性的历史问题研究是亟需相关领域的学者专家共同努力的。 本篇论文则侧重于研究外销瓷中景德镇青花瓷器的相关问题, 通过对景德镇所生产的外销青花瓷器的制作时代、 工艺特征、 胎釉成分等的研究分析, 说明“南澳Ⅰ号”中景德镇青花外销瓷的种类、 数量, 制作生产时代的上下限, 在外销瓷中的市场占有率, 贸易与消费环节等问题, 而此研究结果亦可能成为“南澳一号”出航时间的左证之一。 “Nanao No. Ⅰ ancient ship” the hull structural original model, starting point and where the final destination, who owned the ship right, sources with the production of commercial goods carried in the cabin is where, what factors cause long 27 meters wide 7.8 meters and hull submerged 27 meters under the sea, and so on. To uncover the face of the ancient commercial port location of business activities and the South China Sea Maritime Silk Road route intersection of things, such as the evolution of history and geography. “Nanao No. Ⅰ ancient ship” hidden mysteries critical information to understand the history of open, comprehensive study of the history of this problem very need of scholars and experts in related fields jointly explore. This paper focuses on export blue and white porcelain from Jingdezhen Kiln production of any part of, so the era of research and analysis for export blue and white porcelain produced process characteristics, used glaze ingredients, to show the type at “Nanao No. Ⅰ ancient ship” export blue and white porcelain and the number of those from Jingdezhen, the era upper and lower production of times, export porcelain in the market share, trade and consumer sectors and other issues. The results of this study may also become one of the “Nanao No. Ⅰ ancient ship” corroboration sailing time.

Shi Yuntao 石云涛: 魏晋南北朝时期海上丝路的利用 [The Maritime Silk Road during the Period of Wei-Jin and Northern and Southern Dynasties]

魏晋南北朝时期海上交通相当活跃, 特别是东吴、 刘宋和萧梁等朝。 与海外的交往和交流主要表现为使节、 贸易和佛教文化传播等几个方面。 贸易活动和佛教交流呈恒温态势, 而使节往来是时有盛衰断续进行的, 但比之汉代以来交通的海外国家从数量上大有增加, 与东南亚诸国交往比之前代更加频繁。 尽管东汉时自大秦至洛阳已经为罗马人所走通, 但两晋以后, 便没有中国与罗马或拜占廷之间海上交通的记录, 南朝诸朝交往的海外国家最远便是天竺、 师子国。 东夷方面, 与朝鲜半岛诸政权间的交往有加强趋势, 而与倭国之间则呈衰退之势。 During Wei-Jin and Northern and Southern dynasties, maritime traffic was very active, especially in East Wu, Liu Song and Xiao Liang. The overseas communication mainly included embassies, trade and Buddhism. The trade and Buddhism exchanges were quite stable, while the envoy was intermittent. The quantity of overseas countries increased greatly compared with the Han Dynasty, and the communication with Southeast Asian counties became more frequent than previous times. Although the Romans had found the way between Luoyang and Roma in the Eastern Han Dynasty, there was no maritime traffic record on the communication between China and Roma or Byzantine after West and East Jin dynasties. For the Southern Dynasties, the farthest communicated countries were Tianzhu(India) and the lion country(Sri Lanka). On the east, the interactions with the regimes in the Korean Peninsula strengthened, and that with Japanese was declining.

Li Qingxin 李庆新: 越南海域发现清代广州沉船——金瓯沉船及其初步研究 [The Qing Dynasty’s Shipwreck Found in the Vietnamese Maritime Territorial: The Ca Mau Shipwreck and Its Research Value]

20世纪90年代以来, 越南在中南部海域多次进行沉船勘探与发掘, 打捞了从15世纪到18世纪的沉船5艘。 这些沉船的出水与考古发掘, 已引起国际学界的广泛关注。 其中, 金瓯沉船发现于1998年夏, 是一艘在雍正年间 (1723—1735) 从中国广州开出的商船, 沉没于金瓯角海域。 金瓯沉船出水遗物有中国陶瓷器、 锌条、 康熙通宝钱币、 衣物、 船骨、 金属制品、 石质印章等。 金瓯沉船的发现对探索清朝、 河仙鄚氏政权及南中国海海上交往都有特别价值。 Since 1990s’, the shipwreck’s exploration and excavation has been undertaken for several times in Viet Nam’s south-central maritime territorial and five shipwreck from 15 century to 18 century are salvaged, which has been arousing universal attention in the international academic circles. The Ca Mau shipwreck was found in the summer of 1998, which is a merchant ship from Guangzhou in the Yongzheng period of the Qing dynasty (1723-1735) and sank in the south maritime territorial to mũi cà mau. The relics from this shipwreck including the Chinese porcelains, zinc bar, Kangxi tongbao coins, clothes, keel, metal products, and stone seal ect. provide valuable preferences for the research of the maritime exchanges among the Qing empire, the Mac Regime in Ha Tien and the South China sea area.

Zhou Yunzhong 周运中: 先秦中国大陆与台湾间的航海新考 [The Navigation Between Mainland and Taiwan during the Pre-Qin Period]

本文认为《庄子》、 《列子》、 《山海经》记载的东南海外大壑是指流经台湾与琉球群岛附近的黑潮, 《吕氏春秋》还明确记载了黑潮的流向, 黑潮在汉魏六朝时期的《神异经》、 《海内十洲记》、 《汉武帝内传》、 《拾遗记》中都有记载。 先秦时期探索海外的先驱是燕齐方士, 汉语中的“洋”字就出自胶东方言的“瀛”字。 但是先秦时期的东海外越不是台湾原住民, 而是浙东的海上居民。 中国东南沿海的白水郎 (疍民) 有很多出自北迁的台湾原住民, 春秋时期吴王乘坐的大船余皇源自台湾原住民语言大船avang。 The Da-He (huge valley) beyond East Sea in Zhuang Zi, Lie Zi and Shan Hai Jing was the Kuroshio (black current), even Lv Shi Chun Qiu recorded the flow direction of the Kuroshio, The Kuroshio also have been recorded by Shen Yi Jing, Hai Nei Shi Zhou Ji, Han Wu Di Nei Zhuan, Shi Yi Ji during the han and six dynasties. The pioneers to explore abroad seas were necromancers from Yan and Qi state, so the Chinese character yang (ocean) was from the character ying (ocean) in the Shandong peninsula. The Wai-Yue (External-Yue) were aboriginals in Zhoushan islands, rather Taiwan. The Bai-Shui-Lang (Dan-Min, water residents) in southeast China coastal included some aboriginals from Taiwan, so the big boats called Yu-Huang belong to the kings of Wu State were the big boats called avangs in Taiwan.

Chen Xiao 陈潇, Xie Bizhen 谢必震: 中琉航海与钓鱼岛问题 [On the Navigation and the Diaoyu Islands]

钓鱼岛名称最早出现在福建往琉球的针路记载中, 由此可见, 中琉航海牵扯到钓鱼岛的发现、 命名和主权归属的问题。 本文通过对福建通琉球的航路何时形成、 福建往琉球的航路何人开辟、 福建人的航海实践与钓鱼岛主权的关系诸问题的探讨, 旨在说明钓鱼岛是中国人发现、 命名的, 钓鱼岛主权属于中国。 The name of Diaoyu Islands first appeared in the documental records of the ocean navigation route from Fujian to Ryukyu, which helps to make clear the discovery, naming and sovereignty issues of the Diaoyu Islands. Based on the research of when the Fujian-Ryukyu ocean route formed, who opened Okinawa the route, and what the relations between Fujianese maritime activities and the sovereignty over the Diaoyu Islands are, the paper proves that the Diaoyu Islands are discovered and named by Chinese and belong to China .

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《国家航海》第5辑 (2013年第2期)

Robert J. Antony 安乐博: 海盗、 龙夫人、 汽船:近代史上南中国海的新型另类 [Pirates, Dragon Ladies, and Steamships: An Alternative View of the China Seas in Modern Times]

大多数近代史的历史学者在讨论中国海洋史时, 所专注的课题, 常为中外不平等条约及其內容影响, 中国被迫开放对外通商贸易的口岸和中外贸易之间的关系, 以及近代史上发生在中国附近海域数场著名的中外海战等。 本文所专注的主题与这些传统的角度大不相同, 它所切入的角度是被忽略的海上不法活动, 所涵盖的范围为中国附近的海域, 自鸦片战争至第二次世界大战之间, 所发生的海盗事件及与其相关的不法组织活动。 这段时间中, 西方所发明的蒸汽船, 首次被介绍进中国海域, 并逐渐成为中国附近海域重要的航行工具, 使得中国海域, 不但商业贸易方式大异以往, 海上的不法活动也出现重大变革。 参与不法活动的成员, 不但有男性, 也有一群为数不少的女性, 颠覆西方人对神秘东方女性的刻板印象, “龙夫人”一词影响至今, 成为东方女性强权的代称。 Most historians tend to treat the maritime in terms of imperial expansion, treaty ports, foreign trade, and naval warfare. This article takes a somewhat unconventional approach to examine the underside of Asian maritime history, namely piracy in the China Seas between the Opium War and the Second World War. Unlike Western piracy, which in its heyday in the early 18th century was a global, deep-sea phenomenon, piracy in Asian waters always has been essentially a coastal phenomenon. The advent and gradual ascendancy of steamships in Asia did not alter this fundamental truth, but it did bring about important changes not only to the nature and scope of commerce but also of piracy. Steamshipping forced Chinese pirates to change their tactics. The old-style straight forward, frontal attacks became less feasible against the larger and swifter steamships. Instead, pirates adopted the relatively new approach of hijacking. Virtually all of the hijacked ships were Western or Western-flagged river or coasting steamers.

Matsuura Akira 松浦章, Yang Lei 杨蕾: 清初皇帝的海洋思想 [Qing Emperors’ Maritime Polices]

本文主要论述满清入关后顺治皇帝与康熙皇帝的海洋思想。 顺治帝由中国的东北入主中原, 大概由于这个原因, 顺治帝对于海洋持有较为审慎的态度, 对盘踞沿海岛屿的郑成功势力采取“迁界”政策, 予以削弱。 其根本思想是将断绝海上贸易、 动摇其经济基础作为强大的武器, 从根本上断绝郑成功势力的生命线。 这种政策从某种意义上, 也扼住了中国大陆与东亚进行贸易的咽喉。 由于中国的制造业在当时的东亚首屈一指, 东亚各国极其渴望得到中国的高档手工艺品和丝绸制品。 而顺治帝认为, 阻断这类商品由大陆输出的通路, 可以给郑成功势力的海上贸易活动以致命打击。 但这样的措施, 同时也给沿海地区的民众带来了经济上的巨大损失。 顺治帝之后的康熙帝, 采取了与之不同的海洋政策。 康熙帝对海洋的认识较有远见, 他看到了海洋的价值。 在平定台湾的郑氏势力后, 康熙帝开始以积极的态度看待民众的海外贸易活动。 康熙帝认为, 如果对民众正常的海外贸易加以限制, 走私者和海盗等地下势力将会给中国社会的稳定带来不利影响。 后来的事实证明:由于康熙帝实行推进民众海上活动及海外贸易的政策, 中国民众的海上活动呈现出积极和活跃的局面。 This paper mainly compares Emperor Shunzhi’s maritime policy with that was differently conducted by Emperor Kangxi. Emperor ShunZhi gained entrance to Beijing through land route, and this may explain why he kept a prudential attitude to the maritime affairs. He issued the Evacuation decree forcing coastal inhabitants to move into inner land in order to shake the root of Koxiga’s antagonism. However, as Chinese fine goods played an important role among East Asian countries, this policy actually blocked the mainland off and damaged China’s own interests in the maritime trade. However, in contrast, Emperor Kangxi who succeeded the throne from Emperor Shunzhi conducted a different policy. Kangxi was an emperor of vision who recognized the value of maritime trade. Especially after he eliminated the Zheng family, the emperor encouraged the coastal inhabitants to trade overseas. Emperor Kangxi realized that if the normal maritime trade was limited, the smuggling and piracy would do much more harm to the reign. Since the implementation of Emperor Kangxi Ocean and promote the public policy of overseas trade, the Chinese people's Seaside showing a positive and active situation. It has been proved that Kangxi’s pragmatic sea policy brought a prosperous phase in the late 17th century.

Stephen Davies [戴伟思]: 视而不见:“耆英”号木帆船在西方的境遇(1848~1855) [The reception of the junk Keying in the west, 1848-1855]

“耆英”号于 1846-1848年的航行经历证实了中国传统风格木帆船远洋航行的能力以及局限性。 然而, 西方世界对该船持排斥态度, 对来自非西方社会的技术不以为然, 对其评价也有失公允, 这些从现存的该船图片资料中均可考证。 我们的研究发现, 西方人对这艘船的认识并非源于实物, 很可能是来自船上一位名叫Sam Sing的中国船画家。 由船及人及文化, 正是由于对“所见”视而不见, 几乎使西方世界的“中国印象”从一开始就处于消极状态。 这样的排斥与拒绝反映了那个时代所特有的文化自负。 The voyage of the junk Keying 1846-1855 simultaneously represents a vindication of the seaworthiness of traditional Chinese vernacular naval architecture, a statement of its limitations as a long distance voyager, and the purblind refusal in the west to look carefully at the technology of non-Western societies and evaluate them fairly. Nothing illustrates this so well as the pictorial record that remains. This suggests that western images of the junk were not initially derived from life, but instead from a Chinese source; possibly the ship's artist Sam Shing. It also suggests that almost all western images were from the outset vitiated by a refusal to see what was there to be seen; a refusal that reflects the cultural arrogance characteristic of the epoch.

Wang Rigen 王日根: 明清福建与江浙沪的海上商品贸易互动 [Maritime Commerce between Fujian and Jiangzhehu during the Ming and Qing Dynasties]

明清福建海商在海禁政策面前选择了向北部沿海拓展的路径, 江浙沪是当时手工业较为发达的地区, 棉纺织、 丝织业等均较发达, 福建则是亚热带水果大量出产的地区, 福建需要江浙沪的产品, 江浙沪也需要福建和福建商人采购来的产品, 双方通过海上商业交流达到了各自的目的。 表明海上商业交流已成为清代地区间物资调剂余缺的重要途径。 Under the policy of ban on maritime trade , Fujian maritime merchants chosen a road to exploit toward northern coastal areas. Jiangsu province is much developed area in hand –industry, cotton textile and silk textile were most developed ones, Fujian province is prolific zone of semitropical fruits. Fujian and Jiangsu need change each other, and Maritime commerce road is a economical road. people working in those boats came from different regions and different orders .This is an important road in relieving commodity in the Qing dynasty, and the same time this road linked up the international trade roads and exert its function of China and other nations. It adapted the trend of world economic integration.

Xi Longfei 席龙飞: 南京静海寺残碑与郑和宝船 [The Residual Stele of Jinghai Temple in Nanjing and Zheng He's Treasure Ships]

南京静海寺残碑于1936年为郑鹤声教授发现, 碑文仅存145字。 从文字风格、 书法水平、 镌刻精度方面分析, 其与郑和所立娄东《通番事迹之记》碑、 长乐《天妃灵应之记》碑相差较大。 很难认定立碑人就是郑和。 即使说此碑为郑和所立, 也不能将碑中所记二千料海船视为宝船。 郑鹤声教授认为:二千料海船是将领官军所乘驾的战座船, 宝船与之有别。 The residual stone tablet of Jinghai temple in Nanjing was found by Professor Zheng Hesheng with only 145 words reserved on it. Through analysis on the literary style, Calligraphy level and engraving accuracy of the inscriptions, substantial differences were found between the residualstablet of Jinghai temple and other two tablets set by Zheng He, which are “story of trading with foreign countries” in Loudong and “story of goddess’ effective respond ” in Changle. So the conclusion that the Jinghai tablet was set by Zheng He cannot be drawn. Presume it was set by Zheng He, the mentioned 2000 liao (an ancient Chinese unit represents weight or deadweight of ship) ship can not be regarded as Zheng He's treasure ship. Professor Zheng suggested that 2000 liao ship was a warship rode by generals and it differed from Zheng He's treasure ships.

Yi Huili 易惠莉: 康熙朝漕粮未能实现海运原因探析 [The Reason Why the Caoyun System Failed to Use Sea Based Transportation DuringKangxi’s Reign]

“清承明制”固为定论, 然而清代相对于明代有政制方面的创新, 亦无可否认, 而且其政制创新基本上底定于康熙一朝。 康熙在平定郑氏据台割据势力次年, 即1684年, 实施全面开放海禁的政策; 再在1700年创始八旗“生息银两”制度, 即政府低息贷款于满洲八旗和汉军八旗人员从事经营活动, 并将之首先推广于中日长崎洋铜贸易的领域。 康熙此两项举措的动机, 在很大程度上源自钱制改革, 以解决满清建国以来持续恶化的钱制危机。 但是在与钱制危机同样严峻的河、 漕两大内政困境问题上, 却完全不见康熙有以海上交通寻求解决之途的任何决策动向的踪影。 本文拟在档案史料的基础上, 兼及具体人和事两方面, 追踪康熙在河、 漕两大内政困境问题上的立场和处置方式, 探析漕粮海运未能在康熙朝实现的原因。 The fact that the Qing Dynasty inherited the system of the Ming Dynasty has arrived at a firm conclusion, however, there is no denying that the Qing Dynasty had political aspects of innovation with respect to the Ming Dynasty, and the innovation was basically settled during Kangxi's reign, even including the matter of building the country’s political ideology. In addition, following the year that The Kangxi Emperor pacified the Taiwan separatist forces, that is in the year 1684, the policy of opening the maritime trade was fully implemented. And in the year 1700, the act of Interest Bearing Silver was issued, which means the government would lend the business loans with low interest rates to the Manchu bannermen and Han Chinese bannermen for business activities, and the act was first promoted in the field of Sino-Japanese Nagasaki copper trade. The motivation of Kangxi’s two measures was due in large part to the monetary reform to solve the problem of continuing deterioration of monetary crisis since the founding of the Qing Dynasty. `Nevertheless, regarding to the two domestic dilemmas of the Caoyun system (grain transporting) and river engineering, there was no evidence that Kangxi had attempted to use sea based transportation to solve these two dilemmas. This paper is based on historical archives, taking account of both historical events and people involved to discuss the position and actions that Kangxi had taken facing the two domestic dilemmas of the river engineering and Caoyun system, as well as to explore the reason why the Caoyun system failed to use sea based transportation during Kangxi’s reign.

Zhou Jinyan 周金琰: 妈祖对中国海洋文明的影响 [Mazu's Impact on the Chinese Ocean Civilization]

妈祖信仰自宋代发祥之后, 经过宋元明清不同时期的演绎传播, 以及各朝各代不同人士的推崇, 也经历了无数次国家重大事件的发生。 这些历史的变迁与变革, 都与妈祖之间结下不解之缘。 先民们在从事海洋生产、 生活活动过程中, 留下许多妈祖信仰的足迹, 并写下浓重的一笔, 使妈祖成为海内外海洋文明的先驱。 Since Mazu belief prosper from Song Dynasty, and spread through Song Dynasty, Yuan Dynasty, Ming Dynasty and Qing Dynasty, toward by different generations, then went through countless national reformation events. All the historical changes and transformations had indissoluble bound with Mazu, especially during the Marine production and living activities, it provided many Mazu's belief footprint for historical data of Chinese and foreigners, made Mazu became Marine civilization pioneer at home and abroad.

Zhao Yadan 赵雅丹: 明清两朝中国海洋意识与实践的研究——以海权论为视角 赵雅丹 [The research of Ming and Qing’s Maritime Awareness and Practice: the Perspective of Sea Power]

本文以海权论、 海军战略为视角, 分析了由于中国明清两朝和欧洲各国的治国思想、 经济格局、 外部环境、 国家能力上的不同, 因此中国在近代化的过程中, 在海洋意识、 海军战略、 海军建设的发展上出现了多处不足, 其表现为:海防思想以陆权思维为根, 以技术提高为主; 高度集权的海军战略决策机制, 决策者缺乏海权思维和海战经验; 海军战略以“防”为主, 忽视海军的机动性和进攻性; 海军部署上分而治之缺乏合作; 由于缺少得益于海洋的阶层的持续推进和海军战略不局限于战时战略的特点, 决策缺乏连贯性。 This article's perspective is theory of sea power and naval strategy. The Chinese Ming and Qing dynasties and Europe's have been deferent ruling ideology, economic structure, the external environment, the ability of different countries, so Chinese navy have been a deferent modernization process and many different ideas In the ocean awareness, naval strategy, the development of naval construction ,Such as, Establishing navy for Coast Guard within Land power, Just improving naval technology and equipment,highly centralized decision-making mechanism of naval strategy, policymakers lacking of sea power thinking and naval experience , naval strategy ignoring the Navy's mobility and offensive, Dispersed deployments, lack of cooperation, and decision-making lack of coherence.

Dai Angang 戴鞍钢: 近代上海港与长江流域经济变迁

唐宋以来, 长江流域一直是中国经济的重心所在。 改革开放后, 仍是举足轻重的地区所在。 2012年12月28日, 中共中央政治局常委、 国务院副总理李克强在江西省九江市, 主持召开长江沿线部分省份及城市负责人参加的区域发展与改革座谈会。 他指出, 保持我国经济持续健康发展, 出路在转方式调结构, 而最大的结构调整就是扩大内需。 内需潜力东部有, 中西部回旋余地和发展空间更大, 沿江地带是重要的战略支点。 先沿海兴旺起来、 再沿江加快发展, 梯度推进, 这符合经济发展规律。 他强调, 市场力量是行政力量难以替代的, 经济区域不等于行政区域, 长江流域可先行探索统一市场。 回顾长江流域近代经济发展的历史, 位于长江入海口的上海港, 作为全流域的内外贸易枢纽港, 一直发挥着十分重要的客货集散吐纳的功能。 追溯上海港这种地位和功能形成确立的历史进程, 有助于我们加深对历史、 现实和未来相关问题的认识。 

Meng Jianhuang 孟建煌, Xu Yuanzhen 许元振: 弘扬妈祖文化精神架设两岸交流桥梁——2013年海峡两岸妈祖文化学术研讨会综述

[摘要: 缺少。English abstract: lacking]

Chen Jingxi 陈景熙, Chen Jiashun 陈嘉顺: “南澳Ⅰ号与海上陶瓷之路”学术研讨会综述

[摘要: 缺少。English abstract: lacking]

Wei Jun 魏军: “厦门”号帆船环球航海日志(下)

[摘要: 缺少。English abstract: lacking]

____________________________________

《国家航海》第4辑 (2013年第1期)

Dun He 顿贺: 中国古代造船航海技术对日本的传播与影响 [The Diffusion and Influence on Japan from Shipbuilding and Marine Technology of Ancient China]

本文以中国和日本的文物、 文献为依据, 较系统地介绍了古代中国的造船、 航海技术, 特别是船尾舵、 水密隔舱、 橹、 石碇、 木石锚、 四爪铁锚及航海用的指南针对日本的传播与影响。 This article is a systematic introduction about shipbuilding and marine technology in ancient China on basis of cultural relic and literature of China and Japanese. Especially the sternward rudder, watertight compartments, oar, Ding (which is made of stone to fastened the ship before the anchor is existed), anchor made of wood and stone, grapnel, navigational compass, which has exerted a profound influence on Japan.

Feng Zhiyang 冯志阳, Hou Jie 侯杰: 近代启蒙思想家严复的海权思想——一个有关马汉海权思想引介与运用的考察 [The Seapower Thought of Yan Fu as Enlightenment Ideologist in Modern China: An Observation About the Introduction and Application of Mahan’s Seapower Thought]

虽然中国是一个陆海兼具的国家, 但自古便以陆立国, 缺乏经营海洋的意识。 近代以来, 西方列强从海洋进入中国, 催生出以消极防御为明显特征的“海防论”思想。 与清末海军关系极为密切的严复, 将产生于19世纪末20世纪初的马汉经典海权理论引入中国, 使近代中国的海防建设理论由以“海防论”思想为主导, 转向以更为积极的海权思想为指导。 As a state with both land and sea, China has been founded on land and lacked the realization of managing ocean since ancient time. In modern history the West entered China through oceans and gave birth to the thought of “Coast Defence Theory” characterized by obviously passive defence. Yu Fu, with an extremely close relationship with China navy in Late Qing, introduced Mahan’s classical seapower theory, which appeared in the end of the 19th century and the start of the 20th century, into China, so that the construction theory of sea defence in modern China turned from the main guide of the thought of “Coast Defence Theory” to that of more active seapower thought.

Wu Langxuan 吴琅璇: “殊奈”今地考 [Exploration of the Current Location of Ancient Su-nai]

殊奈这一中外航海交通史地名, 中国学者对其所在虽多有认定, 可惜皆错。 本文根据中文古籍中殊奈 (Su-nai) 、 珠奈 (Zhi-nai) 、 设比奈 (Shibanoy) 音近越南史籍地名施耐 (Thi-nai) 、 尸耐 (Shi-nai) 、 尸唎皮奈 (CriBanoy) 的特点、 以及昆仑人 (Khun) 体型特征, 考定殊奈地在今越南南部的归仁 (Qui Nhon) , 这也就纠正了以往学者的错误, 并可订正《唐会要》、 《新唐书》中的几处讹误, 以及相关的其他错误。 Chinese scholars have drawn conclusion of where Su-nai, a name of place in Chinese and foreign marine transport history, is located now, but unfortunately all of them seem to be wrong. According to the fact that in pronunciation to ancient Vietnamese places names Thi-nai, Shi-nai and Cribanoy, and in consideration of the body features Khun, the author ascertains through research that Su-nai is located in Qui Nhon, South Vietnam, thus correcting Chinese scholars’ mistakes. Meanwhile some errors and corruptions in two ancient Chinese books Tang Huiyao and New History of the Tang Dynasty are also revised.

Wang Qingchuan 王晴川: 上海航运文化产业发展的思路与对策研究 [A Study of Shanghai Shipping Cultural Industry Development Ideas and Strategies]

发展航运文化产业, 是建设高水平、 智能型国际航运中心的必经之路。 上海航运文化产业的发展尚处于起步阶段, 尤其缺乏战略规划和长远布局。 上海航运文化产业发展正面临着重要的战略机遇期。 上海应借鉴国内外航运文化产业发展模式, 整合各方面航运文化资源, 建设具有“海派文化”特点, 并符合本土实际的航运文化产业高地。 The development of shipping cultural industry, is the only way to build a high level, intelligent international shipping center. With Shanghai shipping cultural industry still in its infancy, it is particularly lacking in strategic planning and long-term layout. The development of Shanghai shipping culture is facing an important period of strategic opportunities. So it is necessary for Shanghai to build a shipping cultural industry highland with Shanghai school cultural characteristics and In line with local realities , based on the lessons drawn from domestic and international development mode of the shipping cultural industry and the integration of shipping cultural resources of all aspects.

Wang Yizheng 汪义正: 遣唐船航路的探讨 [A Study about Sino-Japan Voyages in Tang Dynasty]

日本学者主张遣唐船航路有二:一为南岛路, 一为南路。 南岛路从九州南下到琉球群岛那霸一带后, 直接逆溯黑潮主流横渡东海, 抵达长江口; 南路从五岛列岛直接逆溯黑潮支流, 横渡黄海抵达长江口。 这个学说显然地违背了古代航海的自然规律, 不符合当时的航海条件。 相对地, 明代史籍《筹海图编》记载着两条“历代以来及本朝国初中国使臣入番之故道”:一为太仓使往日本针路, 一为福建使往日本针路。 前者从浙江出东海后, 沿黑潮支流直航日本; 后者从福州沿黑潮主流, 经琉球群岛那霸后再前往日本。 根据古代航海条件, 可推断前者为宋代以后的航路, 而后者为宋代以前的航路。 因此可推论:从福州经琉球那霸再前往日本的针路, 才是遣唐船的可信航路。 Japan historic scholar advocate that in Tang dynasty there are two voyage routes from Japan to China. One called south-island course which from Kyusyu down to Liuqiu Islands, then cruised against the mainstream of Kuroshio ( the Japan current), and acrossed the east China sea for the entrance of Yangtze river. The another called south course which from Goto Islands directly cruised against the branch of Kuroshio and acrossed the Yellow sea for the entrance of Yangtze river. Obviously, this theory violated the voyage rules in the ancient age. Conversely, the historic book of Ming Dynasty, so called “Chou hai tu bian” recorded two cruising courses for China missions toward Japan. One from East China Sea along the branch of Kuroshio directly for Japan. The another from Fuzhou along the mainstream of Kuroshio for Japan via Liuqiu Islands. According to the voyage conditions in that ages, the former should be after Song Dynasty, and the later should be before the Song Dynasty. So we can say the voyage course from Fuzhou China for Japan via Liuqiu Islands is the reliable course of ancient Sino-Japan voyage course in Tang Dynasty.

Zhang Chonggen 张崇根: 也谈《两种海道针经》的编成年代及索引补遗 [A Study about the Compiled Time and Erratum of Index of Liang Zhong Hai Dao Zhen Jing]

张荣、 刘义杰两位的《<顺风相送>校勘及编成年代小考》, 通过对“浯屿港的兴废衰亡”的考证, 推断《顺风相送》编成于“十六世纪的中叶, 即隆庆至万历初”, 有理有据, 很有说服力。 但对当前流行的《顺风相送》成书于永乐元年说驳论不够。 笔者通过几条“日清”的考证, 进一步论证《顺风相送》不是编成于永乐元年 (1403年) , 而是在1571年至16世纪90年代之间。 《指南正法》的编成年代在“十七世纪中叶”, 而不是 “十八世纪的初期”。 ZhangRong&LiuYiji’s research on Shun Feng Xiang Song and its compiled Time,through the textual research on the abolition & death of Wuyu port, we can infer that the statement Shun Feng Xiang Song was compiled in the middle of the sixteenth century, that is to say, Longqing—the first few years of Wanli, is really rational and persuasive. However, for the argument that Shun Feng Xiang Song was compiled in the first few years of Yongle (1403) , the criticism is far from enough. By means of the research on ”Riqing”, I personally think that it was compiled between 1571 to the 90th of the sixteenth century, while Zhi nan zheng fa was written in the middle of the seventeenth century not the beginning of the eighteenth century.

Zhang Xiaodong 张晓东: 唐朝前期的海上力量与东亚地缘——以唐新战争前后为中心 [Sea Power and Geographic Politics of East Asia in the Earlier Tang: Focus on the War between Tang and Xinluo]

唐初为收复辽东失地, 发展海上力量和跨海远征百济, 最终取得唐丽战争的胜利。 之后, 唐朝建立羁縻体系的地缘政策和新罗统一朝鲜半岛的活动发生矛盾, 引起唐新战争。 在作战中唐朝海上部队不断损失, 新罗却有意识的发展海上水军, 夺取黄海制海权, 取得战略优势。 战争的结局对东亚地缘格局发生重大影响。 唐朝地缘政策目标的实现受国策局限, 及海上力量与制海权转化等多重因素的影响。 但从后来历史发展看, 新罗的统一依然是积极进步的。 In early Tang , Tang Empire developed sea power and exploited baiji ,gaining the victory of the war between tang and gaogouli . After the war between Tang and Xinluo broaken out for the contradiction between geopolitics policy of tang empire to build up the jimi system and efforts of xinluo to unite the Korean peninsula . However, navy of Tang was damaged greatly when Xinluo tried to develop its navy and gained command of seas , so the war situation reversed . The result of this war determined the geographic politics of ancient East Asia. The realize of tang’s policy is limited by national policy ,conversion of sea power and thalassocracy and so on. However, the unification of Korean peninsula by Xinluo was still positive according to later history.

Zhou Yunzhong 周运中: 元朝台湾历史新考 [A New Research on Taiwan History of the Yuan Dynasty]

本文在前人研究基础上, 重新考证元初东征台湾的航线, 认为元军在澎湖岛的驻泊地汀路尾澳是澎湖岛南端的猪母落水澳, 元军曾到达今高雄市附近。 本文又发掘出元军追击海盗到达流求国界一事, 指出在今台湾海域。 本文最后重新考订汪大渊《岛夷志略》所记台湾岛上的四个山名, 提出其地在今台南、 高雄及鹅銮鼻附近。 This article made a new research about the route of expidition for Taiwan by the early Yuan Dynasty, and pointed out that the Yuan army had arrived in the neary of Gaoxiong, by reason of Ting Lu Wei Ao, the residence of the Yuan army in Penghu island, was Zhu Mu LuoShuiAo. The author dug out the history that the later Yuan army chased the pirate far to the boundary of Liuqiu country, now the ocean of Taiwan. The article made a new study on the four mountains, recorded in Dao Yi Zhi Lue written by the maritime merchant Wang Dayuan, and fingered out that they were respectively now Tainan, Gaoxiong, and here about of E luan Bi.

Lu Rude 陆儒德: 中国海权思考——马汉《海权论》的局限与当代海权观

《海权论》在19世纪末和20世纪初曾经被奉为“海军圣典”, 对西方国家的兴起和对世界格局的形成产生了重要的影响。 迈入21世纪, 在全球化背景下《海权论》的局限开始显现, 在“海洋世纪”新环境下, 我们应重新理解海权, 树立新的海权观, 建立强大海权, 捍卫国家海洋权益, 和平使用海洋, 建立世界海洋新秩序。 [English abstract: lacking]

Wan Ming 万明: 海上寻踪:明代青花瓷的崛起与西传

回顾明代青花瓷发展的历程, 15世纪通过郑和下西洋, 促成了青花瓷在中国本土的崛起; 16世纪通过澳门贸易, 促成了青花瓷作为中国瓷器代表西传欧洲, 先后在葡萄牙、 荷兰等欧洲各国从上到下发展, 形成了社会风尚。 青花瓷从中国本土传播到外部世界, 是中外文明交融的结果。 可以说, 是青花瓷引领了世界时尚, 最终形成了万里同风, 预示着全球化的开端。 本文根据2012年7月在上海中国航海博物馆主讲的学术报告会录音文字整理而成。 [English abstract: lacking]

Zhang Zhongmin 张忠民: 从“小杭州”、 “小苏州”、 “小广东”到“大上海”

唐宋以来, 江南地区已逐渐成为传统中国社会经济最为发展的地区之一。 江南地区社会经济发展的一个重要表现就是对外经济交往, 这种经济交往很大程度上依赖和得益于“口岸”的存在和发展。 在唐宋元明清长达千年的历史时期中, 江南地区口岸经历了一个持续变迁的过程, 直至清前期及近代, 上海最终取得了一枝独秀、 不可动摇的江南乃至全国最重要的口岸地位。 张忠民研究员的《从“小杭州”、 “小苏州”、 “小广东”到“大上海”》对地处江南地区的上海口岸及其经济地位的历史变迁做了深入详细的考察。 本文根据2012年5月他在上海中国航海博物馆2012年学术报告会上所作报告整理而来。 [English abstract: lacking]

Wei Jun 魏军: “厦门”号帆船环球航海日志 (上)

自1522年葡萄牙探险家麦哲伦第一次完成人类驾驶帆船环球航行至2012年3月17日前的近五百年间, 狂风怒号冰冷刺骨的合恩角航线上, 从未有中国帆船从这里驶过。 郑和船队远征的辉煌, 封陈在炎黄大地漫漫的黄土地文化中, 淡去的蓝色让这里的人自认他们的世界本应该就是黄色而不去向往那无限广阔的深蓝。 1979年, 改革开放的大旗挥去罩在眼前黄尘, 发现中华民族的未来应该是那无尽的湛蓝, 不由得让人呐喊:“中国人到了该远航的时候了!”驾驶帆船环球, 是航海爱好者们的梦想, 厦门五缘湾的白帆是他们即将展开的翅膀; 终于他们飞起来了, 就像起飞的厦门, 承载着“岛民”的嘱托和期望, 扬帆远航了。 “厦门号”启航了, 她打开了一扇蓝色的窗, 让更多的中国人看到了包裹着地球的海洋;  “厦门号”远航了, 漫长的316天, 厦门人祈祷和光荣了的316天, 我们为他们祈祷, 为他们光荣, 因为他们不仅代表了厦门更代表了中国人;  “厦门号”返航了, 她沿着我们蓝色星球的地理形状第一次铭刻了中国帆船的航迹; “厦门号”成功了, 虽然晚于“维多利亚”号近500年, 但我们仍然高兴与自豪, 因为, 这是我们的船队; 因为, 我们一起远航。 [English abstract: lacking]

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《国家航海》第3辑 (2012年第2期)

Dai Angang 戴鞍钢: 上海港区位重心的历史变迁 [Corresponding Change of Shanghai Port Area Center]

1843年上海对外开埠通商后, 很快成为中国第一枢纽大港, 并在以后的百余年间, 在全国各口岸中始终居于领先地位。 其间, 伴随上海城市的发展, 为适应世界海运业船舶吨位渐趋增大的发展主流, 得助于港口建设和航道疏浚等技术领域的不断进步, 上海港的区位重心发生相应变迁, 呈现出与时俱进、 逐渐移向黄浦江下游区段相对水深岸线的鲜明特征。 这种历史变迁, 既是上海港不断壮大的具体表现, 也是其百余年来在国内独占鳌头以及在东亚傲然屹立的基础所在。 After 1843, Shanghai become the first hub port in modern China. Meanwhile, with the development of the city of Shanghai, in order to adapt the development of the mainstream, the world shipping tonnage gradually increased, having contributed by the progressive port technology in construction and dredging technology, Shanghai port area center presents corresponding change, which advanced with the times, gradually moving to the Huangpu River downstream section relative to the distinct characteristics of riverbank. The historical changes of Shanghai port area center, had a growing concrete manifestation, and is also the foundation of keeping the domestic champion and erecting in East Asia stand erect in more than 100 years.

Stephen Davies 戴伟思: 中国近海人——以上海、 香港以及新型国际航运中心的相关出版物为视角 [China Coasters: Shanghai, Hong Kong and the publications of a nascent international shipping world”]

20世纪初期, 西方殖民扩张使本已是通商口岸的上海和殖民属地的香港一跃成为重要的国际港口。 作为当时主要的国际交流带, 上海、 香港各自具备“理想型”国际航运中心特征。 上海不仅是一个较大的港口, 还由于其国际大都会背景, 享有更多“非正式”优势。 香港, 则由于英国的管治法规及其在世界海事中的领导地位而享有更多“正式”优势。 这两个港口城市成为中国沿海地区的主要口岸, 作为一个具有潜力的国际航运中心, 上海的一个重要“软件”优势在于其繁荣发达的出版业, 相关出版物极大满足了国内外航运人士的需求。 本文将介绍其中的三个例子:第一部《英中航海词典》、 清代海关总税务司的出版刊物以及《中国航运潮汐与船舶操纵手册》年刊。 1940年代国内战争的动乱和1949年中华人民共和国的正式成立, 使上海失去上述航运优势; 反观香港, 由于40年代末上海航运业人才和资金往香港迁移, 以及英国殖民统治逐渐放宽, 香港得以充分利用已拥有的优势, 并建设之前所匮乏的航运软件。 到21世纪初期, 香港已成为中国国际航运中心的引领者。 上海若想重建早年的航运辉煌事业, 须重视“理想型”国家航运中心软件建设, 打造一个面向世界、 顺畅而开放的东方国际交流区域。 By the early 20th century Shanghai and Hong Kong had achieved the status of major international ports because of western imperialism, the creation of treaty ports and colonial annexation. Each shared some attributes of an ‘ideal type’ international maritime centre as a major ‘contact zone’. Shanghai was not only the larger port it also had greater informal advantages because of its more cosmopolitan milieu. Hong Kong had more formal advantages because of British rule and Britain’s leading role in world maritime affairs. The two port cities became the main ports on the coast of China. Symptomatic of Shanghai’s ‘software’ advantages as a potential international maritime centre were the products of its publishing world. These were geared to satisfy the needs of international and not merely local seafarers. Three examples are reviewed: the first known Anglo-Chinese Maritime Dictionary, the publications of the Imperial Chinese Maritime Customs, and the annual China Coaster’s Tide Book and Pocket Nautical Manual. The turbulence of the 1940s and the creation of the People’s Republic of China in 1949 deprived Shanghai of these informal advantages. The movement of Shanghai shipping interests to Hong Kong in the late 1940s, allied to the winding down of Britain’s colonial empire permitted Hong Kong to build the informal ‘software’ it had previously partly lacked and capitalize on its formal advantages. By the early 21st century it had become China’s leading international maritime centre. For Shanghai to re-establish its earlier pre-eminence, it must move back closer to the ‘ideal type’ creating the fluidity and openness of an outward orientated contact zone.

Huang Chunyan 黄纯艳: 论宋代南海贸易体系的形成 [A Discussion on the Nanhai Trading System Formed in Song Dynasty]

宋代完成了对外贸易重心由西北陆路向东南海路的转移, 在经济重心南移和宋朝政府鼓励海外贸易政策的推动下, 宋代海外贸易空前繁荣, 推动了亚洲海上贸易的发展, 促使了有稳定商品结构和市场关系、 稳定贸易力量、 稳定的市场区域的南海贸易体系最终形成, 从而使亚洲政治经济格局及其运行形态发生了显著变化。 The center of Chinese foreign trade shifted from the northwest on land to the southeast at sea completely in Song Dynasty. Because of the southward movement of economic center and the governmental policy which encouraged the development of overseas trade, overseas trade developed unprecedentedly, and Nanhai trading system which had stable commodity structure and relationship of market, stable trade power, stable area of market, formed finally in Song Dynasty. Thus, asian political and economic pattern and its mode of operation changed obviously.

Lin Shimin 林士民: 上海航运业与宁波帮之研究 [Study of Shanghai Shipping Industry and Ningbo Businessman Group]

通过对上海港与宁波港大量历史资料的对比研究,从中可以看出上海兴起的历史原因与发展成新型国际性都市的内在因素。 在形成世界性城市过程中发展航运业是支撑这个城 市与世界文明对话的关键。 而上海的航运业从国内发展到国际,进一步促进了世界性的通商贸易与文化交流。 宁波商帮代表人物虞洽卿、 董浩云开创的航运业为上海的发展建立了丰碑,更为上海的繁荣与持续发展带来了生机。 Though comparative research of large number of historical data about Shanghai port and Ningbo port, we can see the historical causes and internal factors of the development of Shanghai into an international city. In the formation of worldwide urban, the development in the shipping industry is the key to the support of the dialogue between the city and the civilizations in the world. The development of Shanghai shipping industry from domestic to international further promoted international trade and cultural exchanges. Shipping industry pioneered by the Ningbo Commercial representatives Yu Qiaqing and Dong Haoyun contributed greatly to the development of Shanghai, and brought more prosperity and sustainable development of the Shanghai.

Lee Pui-tak 李培德: 十九世纪买办的垄断地位和延伸网络 [The Monopoly and Extended Networks of Chinese Compradores in the 19th Century]

19世纪的买办, 凝聚力甚强, 这可从买办的推荐和保证制度反映出来。 香港的广东人买办韦光、 罗伯常、 何东、 莫仕杨、 容良等, 无论是个人或家族, 多以世袭或互相保荐的方式来垄断, 将影响力由一个群体, 一个地方扩散到全国, 远至日本。 买办利用此种既非市场又非制度的方法来展开商业活动。 进入20世纪, 由于民族主义抬头, 买办制度受到冲击, 有不少外商认为不需要买办中间人的角色去进入中国市场, 因此买办制度逐渐走向衰落。 In the 19th century, the cohesive power of Chinese compradores was extremely high due to two factors. One is the hindrance of entry of compradoreship to non-members of the same ethnic group. Another is the guarantorship. Cantonese compradores like Wei Guang, Lo Bochang, He Dong, Mo Shiyang and Yong Liang, monopolized all the compradore positions by order of succession and interlocking guarantorship. Their influences were extended from one group to all over China and even to Japan. Chinese compradores were used to adopt this non-institutional method to extend their business activities. Entering into the 20th century, due to the rise of Chinese nationalism, many foreign firms in China ceased to recruit compradore since they thought they did not have to rely on the intermediate role played by the compradores in exploring the China market. As a result, the compradore system in China came to a standstill.

Zhang Rong 张荣, Liu Yijie 刘义杰: 《顺风相送》校勘及编成年代小考

1935年, 向达先生于英国牛津大学鲍德林图书馆内寻获《顺风相送》和《指南正法》, 抄录回国。 后经向达先生校注, 1961年以《两种海道针经》为名出版, 世人始见我国明清两代航海针路簿之庐山真面目。 《顺风相送》问世以来, 论者多从该书的成书年代进行考论, 而鲜及其他。 本文以《顺风相送》影印件对向注本《顺风相送》进行校勘, 纠正向注本转录时造成的错误。 此外, 本文认为《顺风相送》乃以浯屿港为起航港的航路指南, 浯屿水寨的弃守和漳州月港的兴起与《顺风相送》的编成年代具有极强的相关性, 通过论证, 认为该书的编成时间应在隆庆至万历初的16世纪中叶。 同时认为, 《顺风相送》等已知的明代针路簿都源于明永乐元年尹绶编绘的海道图经, 并经过火长们累次校正后编成的, 因此, 《顺风相送》的作者只能是火长们而非吴朴。 最后, 本文还就浯屿地望进行了简单考证, 指出将浯屿港注释成金门岛是向注本的一大失误。 In 1935, Mr. Xiang Da found Shun feng xiang song (Favourable Winds in Escort) and Zhi nan zheng fa (General Compass-Bearing Sailing Directions) in the Bodleian Library, University of Oxford. He transcribed the manuscripts and brought them back to China. After collated and annotated by himself, in 1961, Mr. Xiang Da published Liang zhong hai dao zhen jing (Two Maritime Itineraries), which was the first time that people saw the Chinese nautical chart dated back to Ming and Qing Dynasties. Since the advent of Shun feng xiang song, scholars have been argued about its composed time; only few have ranged over other topics. In this paper, the writer will collate the annotated Shun feng xiang song consulting the original manuscript from Bodleian Library.The paper also argues that Shun feng xiang song is the navigation directions, and Wuyu Gang is the port of sailing in the directions. The abandon of Wuyu water castle and the rise of Zhangzhou Yuegang are highly associated with the composed time of Shun feng xiang song. Through demonstration, the writer thinks that the manuscript’s composed time should be from Ming Longqing period to the beginning of Ming Wanli in the mid-16th century. The writer also argues that Shun feng xiang song and other known nautical charts are originated from Yin Shou’s charts in the first year of Ming Yongle period. Furthermore, all the charts were compiled after being proofed repeatedly by Huozhang. Therefore, the writer of Shun feng xiang song should be Huozhang, not Wu Pu. Finally, according to Wuyu’s landmark, the paper provides a demonstration that Wuyu Gang is wrongly noted as Jinmen Dao in the annotated Shun feng xiang song.

Qi Haining 祁海宁: 明代上海地区主要官船疏略 [Shanghai’s Official Boats during Ming Dynasty]

本文按照今天上海市的行政区划范围, 对明代这一区域内运行的漕船、 兵船、 驿递船等三种主要官营船只的用途、 数量和相关情况进行了概括性的梳理。 通过官船这一角度, 透视了明代上海地区经济、 国防、 交通运输等方面政府职能的运行状态。 This paper is a recapitulative study about Shanghai’s official boats during Ming Dynasty. According to the author’s point of view, there were about three types of official boats navigating in Shanghai area at that time: rice-transporting boat, military boat, official people and material-transporting boat. This paper researched each of them on its function, quantity and sources of funding. On the basis of knowing the official boats, we could understand the Ming Dynasty’s Shanghai economics, national defense and transporting to a certain extain.

Shi Diansheng 史滇生: 上海和中国近代海军 [Shanghai and Modern Chinese Navy]

上海在近代中国具有重要的经济地位和战略地位。 近代中国海军同上海有着密切的联系。 上海是中国近代海军发祥地之一, 又是中国近代海军自造舰船的主要基地, 还是近代中国海军军事学术的一个重要传播地。 上海是近代中国海军活动的重要舞台。 In modern China, Shanghai had been a city of both economic and strategic importance. Modern Chinese navy had very close relationship with Shanghai, which had been one of its birthplaces, main base of its indigenous ships, and an important diffusion place of naval academic ideas in modern China. Shanghai was an important stage of modern Chinese naval activities.

Sun Guangqi 孙光圻: 中国历史上的航海文化

本文从航海史学和文化学相结合的角度, 作出如下研究:一、 从理论上探讨了航海文化的定义与内涵; 二、 从文化符号、 价值观、 行为规范和物质形式等四大层面, 具体分析了中国历史上航海文化的主要特征; 三、 从地缘、 经济、 政治和文化上深刻揭示了中国航海文化的本源动因; 四、 在上述论证的基础上, 归纳了本文的主要结论和启迪。 本文认为, 以科学发展观为指导, 认真总结中国航海历史的经验教训, 正确认识中国历史上航海文化的大陆性内核, 是当代中国重振航海雄风, 建设航海强国的关键。 This article combining of angles both maritime history and culture studies, discusses the following issues: Firstly, the definition and connotation of “Maritime Culture” in history; Secondly, a detailed analysis of the main characteristics of maritime culture in Chinese history from four levels, which are cultural symbols, values, behavioral norms and metrical forms; Thirdly, profoundly revealing the origin motivation of Chinese maritime culture from the geopolitical, economic, political and cultural aspects; Fourthly, summarizing the main conclusions and inspiration on the basis of the arguments above. This paper argues that taking the scientific outlook on development as guidance, conscientiously summing up the experience and lessons of Chinese maritime history, correctly understanding the continental core of maritime culture of Chinese history, is the key to revive the nautical treasures and construct a maritime power.

Matsuura Akira 松浦 章: 19世纪后期东亚海域上的英国P.&O.轮船公司之航运 [British P.&O. Steamship Company Shipping on the East Asia Seas in the Late 19th Century]

19世纪中叶以后, 不少欧美轮船开始出现在东亚海域。 其中创建于欧洲19世纪前期的半岛东方轮船公司 (Peninsular and Oriental and Steam Navigation Company,俗称P.&O.轮船公司或大英火轮公司) , 进入亚洲发展其航运事业。 P.&O.轮船公司还进入了开国不久后的日本, 于1864年之后开始运营连接日本与上海、 香港的航线。 该轮船公司的航运活动为东亚地区人员流动做出了巨大贡献。 本论文主要阐述19世纪后期进入东亚海域的P.&O.轮船公司的航运活动以及因此而产生的地区合作。 In the mid-19th century, many European and American ships began to appear in the East Asian Seas in which there was Peninsular Oriental Shipping Company (Peninsular and Oriental and Steam Navigation Company, commonly known as P.&O. steamship company or the British Steamer company) which was founded in the early 19th century in Europe, and entered into Asia for the development of this career in the shipping industry. P.&O. Steamship Company also entered the shortly founded Japan, began operations after 1864 on routes connecting Japan and Shanghai, Hong Kong. The company’s shipping activities made a great contribution to the mobility of the East Asia. The present paper mainly elaborates the P.&O. steamship company’s shipping activities which entered the Seas of East Asia in the late 19th century, as well an regional cooperation so.

Xie Junmei 谢俊美: 清代江海关关址的演变 [Address Changes of Jianghai Customs Pass in Qing Dynasty]

康熙二十四年, 海禁解除, 清政府设立江海、 浙江、 闽海、 粤海四关。 江海关设址变动较大, 有说设于云台山。 作者查阅了清代相关资料, 提出江海关初设海州 (今连云港市) 云台山, 后移至江海交汇的镇江云台山 (今云台区) , 并以第二次鸦片战争镇江开埠设关于此为证。 此后, 随江苏分巡道移至上海, 江海关也同时移至上海。 咸丰三年, 上海小刀会起义, 江海关被焚, 英、 法趁机夺取上海海关管理权。 In the 24th year during Emperor Kangxi’s regime, the Qing government lifted ban on maritime trade with foreign countries and set up four customs pass, i.e. Jianghai, Zhejiang, Minhai and Yuehai. The address of Jianghai Customs Pass changed many times. It was said to be located in Yuntai Mountain. After consulting relevant materials of Qing Dynasty, the author put forward an argument that Jianghai Pass was initially set up in Yuntai Mountain of Haizhou, and then moved to Yuntai Mountain of Zhenjiang estuary. The fact that Zhenjiang Customs was established here when Zhenjiang was open to trade during the 2nd Opium War supported this argument. Afterwards along with the move of Jiangsu government branch office to Shanghai, the address of Jianghai Pass also changed to Shanghai. In the 3rd year during Emperor Xian Feng’s regime, Jianghai Pass was burnt down in the Shanghai Xiaodaohui Uprising. UK and France seized the opportunity and captured the administrative power of Shanghai Customs.

Yi Huili 易惠莉: 林乐知《万国公报》与中国轮船航运事业的初创 (1873—1877)

自1873年1月由李鸿章主持, 并由上海沙船商人朱其昂等具体经办的“轮船招商公局” (该年6月, 香山买办唐廷枢接受李鸿章委任改组为轮船招商局) 开局开始, 美国传教士林乐知 (1836-1907) 就在自己所办《中国教会新报》 (1874年9月更名为《万国公报》) 上持续追踪报道该局的事情。 尤其是关于轮船招商局于1876年末和1877年初收购美商旗昌轮船公司一事, 《万国公报》不但是进行报道, 甚至对收购之事也给予了重大影响。 由于《万国公报》的记载, 我们才了解了中国的轮运业如何在外资侵华的历史中生成和发展的故事, 以及招商局收购美商旗昌轮船公司背后有丰富内容的故事。 Since January 1873, The China Merchants Steam Navigation Co., Ltd. (CMSNC), presided over by Li Hongzhang and organized by several sand boat merchants such as Zhu Qi’ang (in June of that year, Xiangshan comprador Tang Tingshu accepted Li’s appointment to reorganize the company) started to operate, American missionary Lin Yuezhi (1836-1907) had become interested in tracing the company’s affairs and published progress reports on the company on The Church News (Jiaohui xinbao), a journal Lin founded himself. (In September 1874, Lin reorganized this paper and renamed it The Globe Magazine (Wanguo gongbao), or later the Review of the Times.) With special regard to the company’s acquisition of the Shanghai Steam Navigation Co. in late 1876 and early 1877, the Globe Magazine did not only reported this acquisition, but also made a significant impact on it. Due to the records of the Globe Magazine, we can get to know how the China shipping industry was started and developed during the period of foreign invasion, as well as the content-rich stories behind the China Merchants Steam Navigation Co.’s acquisition of the Shanghai Steam Navigation Co.

Zheng Ming 郑明, Zhao Zhigang 赵志刚, Fang Shijian 方诗建, Wang Guoping 王国平: 郑和宝船考证依据与仿造实践探讨 [Research of the Basis and Recovery Creativity of Zheng He Treasure Ship]

本文简述郑和宝船的前世今生, 并评述南京仿明代郑和宝船的仿造复原的创意与依据、 设计特点、 施工的主要手工技艺传承和仿古作为遗产性建筑的思考, 以及对下一步仿明代郑和宝船走向世界的扬帆航海、 交流、 运营的初步设想。 This paper decribes the Zheng He Treasure Ship’s history, and introduces Nanjing Counterfeit imitation of Zheng He Treasure Ship about its recovery creativity and basis of designed features, its heritage of construction craftsmanship, its thinking as a heritage building, and the next step imitation of Zheng He Treasure Ship towards the initial vision of the world sailing navigation, communication, operations.

Zhang Zhongmin 张忠民: 鸦片战争前夕的上海口岸 [Shanghai Port before Opium War]

上海的口岸地位在近代之前, 有两个问题最值得重视和探究。 这就是上海的口岸地位究竟是如何形成的, 以及到鸦片战争五口通商前夕, 上海的口岸以及经济地位究竟达到了一个什么样的程度。 文章通过对历史资料记载的比对、 分析, 认为近代之前上海的口岸地位具有多重性的内涵, 近代之前的上海实际上已经成为当时中国最重要的国内贸易口岸。 其潜在的口岸及经济优势在进入近代之后, 得以进一步的释放和迸发, 并由此而导致日后大上海的充分发展。 There were two important points about Shanghai port before modern times, in which one was the formation of Shanghai port from ancient time, the other was the level of Shanghai port and its production in prior to the Opium War. The study indicates that Shanghai port prior to the Opium War had become the most important domestic trade port in China then, with the gathering, comparing and analysis of the historical materials about Shanghai port and social economy.

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《国家航海》第2辑 (2012年第1期)

Cai Wei 蔡薇, Dai Xiujian 戴修建, Wu Yigang 吴轶钢, Xi Longfei 席龙飞: 吴国的王舟艅艎 [Yu Huang:The Ancient War Ship of Wu Kingdom]

中国历史记载的重大水战发生在公元前549年。 公元前525年王舟艅艎出现。 吴国战船大翼的尺度, 在文献中记载颇详。 战国时期青铜器上的船纹中也已经复原出大翼的舰船模型。 但王舟艅艎的尺度却无考。 参考大翼的尺度, 本文推断出艅艎的尺度。 艅艎的型制, 较大翼增加一层甲板, 并设置有阁楼。 根据它的功能, 可以确定划桨的定位和舱室布置。 最后绘制出王舟艅艎的总布置图以及渲染的效果图。 通过对艅艎王舟的复原研究, 我们再次体会到中华船文化的博大与精深。 In 549 B.C Great water battle was happened which was recorded in Chinese history, and in 525 B.C Yu Huang, a war ship of Wu Kingdom appeared. The dimensions of another warship .i.e. Da YI, in Wu Kingdom, were detailed recorded in literature, and its model had been reformed by referring to the pattern of the bronze vessel in the period of Warring States. However, the dimension of Yu Huang is still remained unknown. This paper deduces the dimension of Yu Huang with reference to the dimension of Da Yi. The layout pattern of Yu Huang, compared with Da Yi, is of one more deck with loft. And then the determination of cabin arrangement and oars position can be achieved according to its function. In the end of this paper, the general arrangement drawings as well as rendered sketch of reformed Yu Huang are drawn. By reform study of the King warship Yu Huang, we can once again experience the broadness and profoundness of Chinese ship culture.

Ge Jianxiong 葛剑雄: 海洋与上海 [Ocean and Shanghai]

[摘要: 缺少。English abstract: lacking]

He Yu 何瑜, Xie Maofa 谢茂发: 从镇压林爽文起义看清中叶的福建绿营水师 [From the Repression of the Lin Shuangwen Peasant Uprising to Evaluate Fujian Green Standard Navy in the Middle of Qing Dynasty]

乾隆五十一年至五十三年, 台湾爆发了林爽文农民起义, 清廷急调福建绿营水师赴台镇压。 福建绿营水师在台期间, 先后参与进攻诸罗、 凤山等地的攻坚战斗, 以及封锁海港、 搜捕起义民众等辅助性军事行动, 并承担起了运输兵力、 粮饷等后勤保障工作, 对“剿灭”农民起义军起了一定的作用。 必须指出的是, 福建绿营水师在台的军事行动是很不得力的, 从中彻底暴露出其软弱无力与畏葸无能。 QianLong fifty-first year, the Lin Shuangwen peasant uprising broke out in TaiWan, the emperor of QianLong dispatched Fujian Green Standard Navy to Taiwan to put up it. During the stage of Lin ShuangWen Uprising In TaiWan, Fujian Green Standard Navy had both involved in the attack of ZhuLuo , Fengshan battles, and other auxiliary military operations such as blockading the harbor, searching for the uprising people. What’s more, Fujian Green Standard Navy also transported the troops , foods and solder’s pay to TaiWan. They played an important role to" destroy" the peasant uprising Army. It should be pointed out that Fujian Green Standard Navy in TaiWan 's military action was bad, which completely exposed its feebleness and incompetent.

Shan Li 单丽: 1902年中国南方霍乱的海路港口传入与内陆蔓延 [The Dissemination of Cholera from Ports by the Sea of Southern China in 1902]

光绪壬寅年南方各开埠港口虽或轻或重都有霍乱疫情的发生, 但疾病谱系并不尽相同.各港口不同传染病的发生, 乃与其地各异的生态环境息息相关。 长江下游地区霍乱疫情的趋同性, 彰显出其时长江一线商贸往来的频繁及港口与腹地间强劲的凝聚力。 南方沿海与内陆的轻重霍乱疫区区分非常明显, 表明人口交往密度往沿海倾斜的大趋势, 但是这种倾斜并非均质。 南方港口与内地不同人群的霍乱伤亡差异显示, 在中国开埠通商及近代化的过程中, 当本应相随的港口检疫、 卫生及医疗现代化不匹配时, 国人所面临的尴尬和必须付出的代价。 而《海关医报》对港口疫情的详细记载, 则为详细了解小区域气候变化对霍乱传播的影响提供了可靠史料。 Regardless of heavy or light, there were cholera outbreaks in southern ports of China in 1902, but the disease spectrum were quiet different, which due to the different ecological environment of every port. The convergence of this epidemic in the lower reaches of Yangze River indicated the high frequency of trade among Yangze River basin and the cohesive power between ports and inland areas. There was clear distinction in severity between coastal and inland areas within Southern China, which show the main trend that is the degree of population interaction was higher close to sea. However, this tendency to the coast was not even. The discrepancy of wound and death among vary groups of people from southern ports to inland areas demonstrated that the Chinese citizens faced embarrassment and had to pay heavy cost during the sea ports opening for trade and modernization process which the supposed corresponding improvement in quarantine, public hygiene, and medical treatment did not match. Besides, 《China Customs Medical Reports》provided detailed documents on the situation of disease, which gave us reliable materials to learn about the influence of climate changing in small areas on the spread of cholera.

Shi Ping 时平: 孙中山论郑和下西洋之再研究 [Further Study about Sun Yat-sen’ Discourse on the Zheng He's Voyages]

本文对孙中山有关郑和的论述进行重新考证及研究。 对学术界一直沿用的孙中山论述郑和内容提出新的界定, 认为孙中山所论资料来自多方面, 除《明史》外, 推断直接源于20世纪初他人研究郑和的著述。 提出孙中山论述郑和下西洋的目的, 是基于对近代化国家宏伟蓝图《建国方略》的设计和规划, 以郑和下西洋的创举, 来振奋和激励国民的自信心及民族精神, 进而从心理建设角度向国民灌输“知难行易”道理及重要性。 This article re-researched Sun Yat-sen's discourse about Zheng He’s voyages. The papers proposed a new definition for Sun Yat-sen's discourse which is cited all the time in academic circles, that besides Mmingshi, Sun Yat-sen had used datas in other researches about Zheng He’s voyages in the early 20th century. In this paper, it was raised that Sun Yat-sen’s purpose by discussing Zhenghe's voyages, was as an example of the pioneering work to inspire and motivate the nation's self-confidence and national spirits.

Matsuura Akira 松浦 章: 清末上海的北洋汽船航路 [The Steamship Line from Shanghai to the Northern waters Late Qing Dynasties]

北洋航路是清末上海国内航线的重要组成部分。 日俄战争期间, 垄断这条航线的主要是中国的轮船招商局和英国的太古公司及怡和洋行等。 本文通过《申报》中的“出船广告”分析了1904年9月到12月的三个月间, 上海驶往黄海、 渤海等北洋海域汽船的航行情况。 中国的轮船招商局和英国的太古公司及怡和洋行排挤了其他的汽船公司, 创造了北洋航路百分之八十的经营业绩。 此外, 从汽船的航行情况看, 20世纪初上海始发的北洋航路其主要目的地是山东的烟台和天津, 作为“北洋三港”之一的牛庄港地位逐渐下降, 与此相对比, 德国占领下的青岛·胶州成为新的航行目的地, 逐渐登上了北洋航运的舞台。 Steamer Line from Shanghai to Northern Waters is an important part of domestic routes in Late Qing. During the Russo-Japanese War, the line was mainly in the possession of China Merchants Steam Navigation Company of China , Swire Pacific of the United Kingdom and Jardine Matheson. This paper referred to boats’ voyage ads on Steamer Line from Shanghai to Northern waters in Shen Bao during september to december in 1904. It was found that China Merchants Steam Navigation Company , Swire Pacific of the United Kingdom and Jardine Matheson, freezing out other companies, mainly possessed the Steamer Line and played 80% of business performance on the Line. It was also discovered that Yantai in Shandong province and Tianjin were the major destinations for boats sailing from Shanghai on Northern Waters. Niuzhuang’ position as one of three important harbours in Northern Waters, decreased. On the contrary, Qingdao and Jiaozhou which was in the control of Germany, became new destinations and gradually ascended the northern shipping stage.

Wu Qiang 武强: 近代上海外滩城区的意象分析 [The Analysis of the Bund Area Image in Modern Shanghai City]

近代上海是中国最大的城市、 工商业经济的中心, 其中以外滩城区最为发达, 也是上海城市的中心区域。 从上海开埠时起的近百年时期发展, 外滩城区实现了由对外贸易中心区域, 向商业中心区域的演变, 在上海城市中占据了关键性地位, 并在极大地影响着近代上海的城市规划。 从城市意象的研究方法出发, 可以发现外滩城区对边界、 道路、 区域、 节点、 标志物等五个意象元素的承担, 外滩城区由精英分子的意象形成开始, 逐渐普及到一般大众, 最终确立了它在物质形态、 精神层次两个方面对上海城市形象的代表。 Shanghai was the largest city and the center of industrial and commercial economic in modern China. The Bund area was the most developed center area of Shanghai. From 1842 to 1936, the Bund completed the evolution from trade center to the commercial center of Shanghai, and affected the city planning of modern Shanghai. This essay takes advantage of the image of the city, analyzing the five elements of boundary, road, area, node and landmark of the Bund, and making use of some maps, shows the Bund was the symbol Shanghai in material form and mind level, especially from the elite to the public.

Wu Shigang 武世刚: 康雍乾时期的中西交通——以“领票传教”为中心 [Communication between China and the West during KangXi, YongZheng and QianLong Period in Qing Dynasty: Research on XinPiao]

在明清时期的中西交通史上, 传教士充当着一个非常重要的角色。 中西礼仪之争, 中国和西方两种不同形态的“人文主义”发生了长达百年的冲撞, 最终导致了西方教士第三次来华传教以来开创的大好局面的终结, 从康熙年间的限制传教到雍乾时候的全面禁教, 传教成为非法转入地下, 只有京畿地区数量有限的“技艺之士”因服务宫廷而得以保留。 康熙四十五年颁发了“传教信票”, 规定“持有此票, 方准传教”, 本文即从这一方小小“信票”管窥康雍乾时期中西交通中的传教情形。 In the history of the communication between China and the West in Ming and Qing Dynasty, missionaries played a very important role. Two different humanisms collided between China and the West which had lasted for one hundred years. Chinese rites controversy directly resulted in the decline of the third missionary peak. The missionary work was limited during KangXi period, but it was totally forbidden during YongZheng and QianLong period in Qing dynasty. Only limited numbers of so-called artificers stayed for royal service in Beijing. KangXi promulgated missionary credence in 1706 A.D, which was called “XinPiao”, and it prescribed that one holding the XinPiao was allowed to do missionary work. From the development of “XinPiao”, the article tries to make one historical reconstruction of the communication between China and the West.

Yuan Hui 袁晖, Gu Yuhui 顾宇辉: 虞洽卿及其民族航运企业述论 [Discussion of Yu Ya-ching and his Shipping Enterprise]

作为近代中国著名的民族航运企业家和社会活动家, 虞洽卿一生先后创办过宁绍轮船公司、 三北轮埠股份有限公司、 鸿安商轮公司以及后来合并成立的三北航业集团。 在其经营和管理下, 三北集团成为全面抗战前中国实力最大的民营轮运企业。 同时, 虞洽卿及其民族航运企业的艰难发展历程, 亦深深烙上近代中国特殊经济社会演变的印记。 As a modern well-known national shipping entrepreneur and social activist, Yu Ya-ching has founded Ning-shao Steam Navigation Company, San Peh Steam Navigation Company, Hung-an Steam Navigation Company and later merged to the San Peh Group all his life. With his management and administration, San Peh group became the largest private shipping enterprise before 1937. Meanwhile,Yu Ya-ching and his national shipping enterprises' tough development process were deeply marked by the evolution of modern China's economic and social influence.

Yuan Xiaochun 袁晓春: 蓬莱高丽 (朝鲜) 古船造船与保护技术 [Shipbuilding Technology and Protection on Koryo(Ancient Korean) Ships Unearthed in Penglai]

2005年7月, 山东省蓬莱市登州港 (蓬莱水城) 发现3艘中外古代沉船, 其中2艘高丽 (朝鲜) 古船为国内第一次发现外国古船。 本文对高丽 (朝鲜) 古船的发现与鉴定, 古船的结构、 特征、 成因、 技术保护, 以及古船与高丽 (朝鲜) 使节的关系等进行了探究。 In July 2005,there are three Chinese and foreign ancient shipwrecks unearthed in the Penglai Dengzhou Port(Denglai Water Fortress), amoug the three ancient ships there are two Koryo(Ancient Korean) Ships which is as foreign ships unearth in China at the first time. The thesis is conducted an in-depth analysis on the two Koryo(Ancient Korean) Ships appraisal and tries to probe into the structure of the ships, caracteristis and cause of wreckage etc. and finds out the relations between the ships and the Koryo(Ancient Korean) envoys at that time.

Zhang Chonggen 张崇根: 再论夷洲即今之台湾 [Further Discussion that Yizhou is Modern Taiwan]

三国孙吴黄龙二年 (230年) , 孙权派卫温、 诸葛直统率万人大军经略夷洲。 对于卫温等人所到之处, 究竟是我国的台湾岛, 还是现在日本的冲绳岛, 学术界有不同的看法。 笔者曾于1981年发表《三国孙吴经营台湾考》, 论证夷洲即台湾。 本文运用民族学、 地理学、 考古学与历史文献相互印证, 再次证明夷洲即我国台湾岛。 这是中国政治势力第一次达到台湾而载入《三国志》等史册。 In the Huang Long second year(230) , Sun Quan of Sunwu, one of The Three Kingdoms, sent Wei Wen and Zhu Gezhi ,with over ten thousands of soldiers, to Yizhou for an expedition. There are different views among the academic circles about wherever Weiwen and his people had been to, China's Taiwan Island or the Japan's Okinawa Island. The writer published an academic paper in 1981, the Sunwu of the Three Kingdoms Managing Affairs about Taiwan. Applying ethnology, geography, archaeology and historical documents to confirm each other, this paper has proved once again that Yizhou is namely our country’s Taiwan Island. This is the first time that Chinese political forces reached Taiwan, which was recorded in the Annals of the Three Kingdoms and other historical books.

Zheng Guangnan 郑广南, Zheng Zhongqing 郑中庆: 《梅氏日记》关于郑成功收复台湾的历史记录 [Mr. May’s Diary: the Historical Record about Zheng Chenggong’s Recovery of Taiwan]

《梅氏日记 》是荷兰人菲利普·梅为东印度公司撰写的一份文件,记录1661年4月30日至1662年2月9日郑成功统领军队渡海东征的具体状况。 梅氏用生动的文字描述郑成功的英雄形象,介绍郑军英勇作战,打败荷兰军队,攻克普罗岷西亚城堡,迫使荷兰总督揆一于1662年2月1日献热兰遮城堡,向郑成功投降的全过程。 郑成功胜利收复台湾,废除荷兰殖民政治制度,建立同大陆一样的府县政权,并领导军民屯垦,发展经济,制定乡镇和城市建设规划,为实现台湾成为“繁荣的大社会”而奋斗。 郑成功致力开发建设台湾,为国捍卫疆土,为民造福,受人民崇敬与爱戴,被尊为“开台圣王”。 Mr. May’s Diary is a file which was written by Dutchman Philip Danielsz. May(Philippus Daniel Meij van Meijensteen) for the East India Company. It recorded the specific situation of Zheng Chenggong who commanded the army to cross the sea and conquer the Dutch army from Apr. 30, 1661 to Feb.9, 1662.Mr. May described Zheng Chenggong’s heroic image lively and introduces the whole process of Zheng’s troop’s conquest over Holland army by fighting bravely, the capture of the Castle Proventia and Dutch Governor Fredrich Coyet’s surrender and offering Castle Zeelandia in Feb.1, 1662. Zheng Chenggogn recovered Taiwan successfully, then abolished Dutch colonial political system and established the prefectural government with the mainland. Then he opened up the virgin land with the solider and civilian, develop the economy, planned for the construction of urban and rural planning, striving for making Taiwan the “big prosperous society”. Zheng Chenggong is committed to the development and the construction of Taiwan. He defended the territory for the county, brought benefit mankind and held love and respect by people. He is regarded as “the Holy King of Exploiting Taiwan”.

Zhou Qunhua 周群华, Ye Chong 叶冲, Ren Zhihong 任志宏, Sang Shiliang 桑史良: 苏州及附近地区太湖水域传统木帆船调查报告

[摘要: 缺少。English abstract: lacking]

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《国家航海》第1辑 (2011年)

Sally K. Church 程思丽: 海洋文化的痕迹——《龙江船厂志》的“壳先”造船过程的证据 [Traces of Maritime Culture: Evidence of ‘Shell-First’ Construction in the Longjiang Shipyard Treatise of 1553]

Dai Angang 戴鞍钢: 海河联运与近代上海及长江三角洲城乡经济 [Ocean–River Transportation and Modern Urban and Rural Economy of Shanghai and the Yangtze River Delta]

海河联运在近代上海城乡经济的发展进程中, 起了不可忽视的促进作用, 它直接推动了民族资本船舶修造业和上海港区、 城区的扩大和郊区市镇的发展, 密切了上海及长江三角洲城乡间的经济联系。 Ocean-river transportation played a significant role in the promotion of the development of modern Shanghai urban and rural economy, giving a direct impetus to the national-capital shipping industry and the expansion of Shanghai Port and its urban and rural areas. Besides, it also strengthen the economic ties between Shanghai and urban and rural areas of the Yangtze River Delta.

Du Shuzhi 杜树志: 中国航海博物馆文物保存环境温湿度的研究 [Research on the Temperature and Relative Humidity for Cultural Relics Preservation Environment in China Maritime Museum]

博物馆收藏的文物, 除了受一些人为主观因素影响外, 无论其存放在文物库房还是处于展览之中, 都不可避免地受到周围环境温湿度、 光照、 昆虫危害、 微生物繁殖、 气态污染物等多种客观不利因素的影响。 温度和相对湿度对文物保存是否能达到最佳状态起到至关重要的作用, 也是整个博物馆行业需要日常需要重点监测和控制的两项重要指标。 本文通过试验对处在特定环境下的中国航海博物馆文物库房以及中国航海博物馆历史馆内的部分点位温湿度进行具体分析, 并对馆藏文物在展示微环境中的温湿度控制进行了深入思考并提出了具体建议。 Except for some impact from subjective factors, cultural relics preserved in museum, no matter in storage room or display, they can’t be avoided to be suffered from surrounding temperature, relative humidity, illumination, insect pest, microorganism reproduction and gaseousness pollutant, etc. In all the above-mentioned negative objective factors, temperature and relative humidity are the two associated and significant parameters requiring more attention in daily monitor and control. Based on the storage room and Navigation History Hall of China Maritime Museum, this paper illustrates the monitoring of temperature and relative humidity around the cultural relics, especially under the special geographical conditions of Lingang New City, Pudong New Area. Advice and suggestions are provided regarding the controlling and monitoring of temperature and relative humidity in micro-environment for exhibits in China Maritime Museum environment.

Gu Yuhui 顾宇辉: 船钞稽考 [Research on Chuan chao (Tonnage Dues)]

船钞作为一种税种, 从明代以至民国, 有其自身的发展演进历史。 其起源与币制、 经济社会的发展密切相关; 发展过程中尤其是在鸦片战争之后凸显出很强的时代特征。 As one of the items of taxation, tonnage dues has its own history of bourgeon and evolution ever since Ming Dynasty to the Republic of China (1912-1949) . Its derivation has been in great relation to currency system ,economic and society development. It showed obvious time features during its development, especially after the Opium War .

He Guowei 何国卫: 析中国古船的料 [Analysis of Chinese Ancient Ship's Liao]

宋元明时期史籍记述古船时出现的“料”字是表示船舶大小档次的度量单位之一, 就其本意而言, 它既不是指船舶载重量也不是指船舶容积, 而是指造船用物料。 料与船舶的载重量和容积一样, 都正比于船的长、 宽、 深, 因此, 料与载重量和容积之间必然存在一定的内在联系, “料”的指意似有其演变扩展的历程。 虽然目前尚不清楚古人究竟如何计量船舶料数, 但它可以用统计公式估算和由型船资料换算。 本文提出的计算公式, 可供适用于统计范围内的船舶料数估量, 欲得到万能通用的料的计算公式似乎不太可能。 本文针对一些学者提出的料的计算公式及其对料的见解展开商榷。 The Liao apperaed in historical records of Song,Yuan and Ming periods , is one of the ship size grade units of measurement, and in ancient ship Liao original idea, it is neither the units of deadweight nor capacity of a ship, but it means the materials for shipbuilding. As with the deadweight and capacity of the ship, Liao is proportional to the ship's length, width, depth, therefore, internal relations must necessarily exist between the Liao, deadweight and capacity. The Liao might have its course of expansion. Although it is unclear how a ship‘s Liao was measured by the ancient, but it can be estimated and converted by using statistical formula and the marine information. Calculation formula this article gives may applies to measure Liao of ships in statistics Liao, but the acquiste of a common universal formula seems impossible. This paper also made a discussion about opinions and insights of some scholars on Liao.

Huang Chunyan 黄纯艳: 南宋朝贡体系的构成 [Structure of Tributary System in Southern Song Dynasty]

本文讨论南宋和金朝两大朝贡体系并存下的南宋朝共体系的构成。 与北宋相比, 南宋朝贡体系大为萎缩, 西夏、 高丽都断绝了与宋朝的朝贡关系, 西北诸族也脱离了宋朝的朝贡体系。 南宋对待诸国朝贡的态度也更为消极。 对大理, 虽有战马贸易, 但拒绝其朝贡, 对交趾和占城的朝贡也实行限制。 见于记载的诸国入宋朝贡的次数十分有限。 南宋为维护“中国”的地位, 仍然以君臣华夷的原则规定以自己为中心的朝贡秩序, 诸国入宋朝贡的主要却主要出于经济目的。 交趾和大理在对宋交往时基本遵守宋朝的规定, 在本国却行皇帝制度, 南海诸国尊重南宋作为经济大国的地位, 但并不关心甚至也不甚理解宋朝规定的政治秩序。 Tributary System in Southern Song Dynasty shrank greatly as compared with that in Northern Song Dynasty.Xixia ,Koryo and political powers in northwest areas didn’t pay tribute to Southern Song Dynasty any more. Southern Song government treated tributary states with more positive attitude.For example,Southern Song government bought horses from Dali,but refused to accept Dali’s tribute,and restricted Vietnam and Champ to pay tribute.In order to uphold its position as “China”(center of the world),Southern Song Dynasty stipulated its tributary order according to relationship between Chinses and minority nationalities,or monarch and his subjects. To get economical benefit was major objective of Tributary states paying tribute to Southern Song Dynasty.View of Southern Song government was very different from those of tributary states.Vietnam and Dali abided by the tributary rules when they payed tribute to Southern Song Dynasty,but carried out emperor system in their own countries.States in Nanhai Areas respected Southern Song Dynasty as a economical great-nation,but didn’t care about ,even couldn’t understand the political order stipulated by Southern Song Dynasty.

Qian Jiang 钱 江: 波斯人、 阿拉伯商贾、 室利佛逝帝国与印尼Belitung海底沉船:对唐代海外贸易的观察和讨论 [Persians, Arabian Merchants, Srivijaya Empire and the Belitung Shipwreck of Indonesia: Observation and Discussion on Maritime Trade of Tang China]

印尼Belitung海底沉船出水的大批文物 (尤其是长沙窑瓷器) 充分说明, 唐代中国海外贸易繁盛的规模远远超乎昔日学术著作和教科书的描述和评价。 中国陶瓷经由海路外销并不是从16世纪或17世纪葡萄牙人、 荷兰人东来之后才开始兴盛, 而是早在唐朝时期就已随着波斯舶、 大食舶和婆罗门舶等西亚、 南亚的商舶前来中国市易而大量地流向海外。 在这一早期陶瓷外销的过程中, 湖南长沙窑扮演了一个非常重要的角色。 唐代中国海外贸易之所以兴盛, 不仅有着当时中国经济迅速发展的内因, 而且还有着不可忽略的外部因素, 即波斯湾地区阿拉伯穆斯林商贾经营的海外贸易在阿巴斯王朝时期迅速发展, 以及东南亚海岛地区室利佛逝帝国的崛起并成为扼守马六甲海峡和巽他海峡的海上强国。 毋庸讳言, 古代波斯人和阿拉伯人在印度洋和南中国海贸易圈的活动中十分活跃, 他们是唐代海外贸易的主要经营者, 为推动当时东西方的经济及文化交往做出了巨大的贡献。 The archaeological recovery of the Belitung shipwreck off Sumatra in Indonesia, the Changsha ware in particular, has fully demonstrated that the booming maritime trade of Tang China was much more than what previously depicted or commented in research works and textbooks. The maritime export ceramics trade from China did not come into view with the coming of early Europeans such as Portuguese and the Dutch in the 16th and 17th centuries but was actually initiated by the merchants from Persia, Arabian Peninsula and India, who shipped away a huge quantity of ceramics from Tang China. The Changsha kilns of Hunan played a key role in the early export ceramics trade. The growth and booming of maritime trade during the Tang period could be attributed to the rapid economic development of Tang China, as well as to a number of important external factors, such as the Muslim Arabian maritime trade based in the Persian Gulf which was encouraged by the Abbasid Caliphate, and the rise of Srivijaya empire in the Archipelago region of Southeast Asia which quickly became a powerful sea power in the region while controlling the passages of Melaka Strait and the Sunda Strait. There is no doubt that early Persians and Arabian merchants were the key players in the maritime trade of Tang China and they were quite active in both Indian Ocean and South China Sea. They contributed a lot in terms of promoting the economic and cultural exchanges between the East and the West.

Ren Zhihong 任志宏: 从料罗湾海战看十七世纪中西方海军实力的差距 [“Battle of Liaoluo Bay”: Gap of strength of the navies between China and West during the 17th century]

明朝海军曾在相当长时段内领先于世界, 但随着明王朝海禁等保守海洋政策的施行, 其海军实力迅速衰落。 之后虽曾有过短暂的恢复但却始终未能达到昔日的辉煌, 并逐渐被西方赶超。 本文即以明朝中西之间最后一次海战“料罗湾海战”为切入点, 探析其时中西方之间海军实力的差距。 The Ming Navy was once far ahead of those of other countries in the world .However, with the enforcement of such conservative maritime policies as ban on trade with foreign countries, the navy soon went downhill. Though it had its power regained for a short period, yet it could not attain its splendid achievements it once made and only found itself gradually overtaken by navies of the west. This article will take the Battle of Liaoluo Bay (the last sea battle between China and West during the Ming Dynasty) as a focal point and make an elaborate analysis on the gap of the strength between the Chinese and West Navies.

Rong Liang 荣亮: 从史前及三代玉鱼出土情况看玉鱼为玉币之争 [The Textual Research of Jade Fish and Jade Coin : Focus on the Unearthed Jade Fishes’ Situation of Prehistoric Period and Xia, Shang, Zhou Dynasties]

玉币作为中国最早的货币在史书中早已有载, 然而对于玉币究竟以何种形式存在, 目前尚无定论; 另外关于玉鱼是否为玉币的问题亦存有较大争议。 本文即主要针对史前及三代玉鱼的出土情况进行统计, 并从考古学和文物学的角度对其时代特征和历史价值进行描述分析判断, 对部分学者认为玉鱼为玉币的观点进行考证, 从而对玉鱼与玉币的关系问题进行推论。 A jade coin, one of the earliest coins of china ,had already been recorded in ancient history. Currently, it has been difficult to clear-out how jade coins were and it has been considerable controversy whether jade fishes were jade coins .The essay counted the quantity of jade fishes that were unearthed in Prehistoric Period and Xia, Shang and Zhou Dynasties. On the basis, we described, analyzed and estimated their Characteristics of the times and historical value from Archeology and Study of Cultural Relics 's standpoint. At the same time ,the essay expounded as combing analysis that some of scholars considered jade fishes were one kind of jade coins. And so to analyze whether jade fishes is jade coins.

Shen Yang 沈洋, Li Yang 李洋: 近代西方私掠船活动初探 [The Exploratory Research of Western Privateering in Modern Times]

私掠船活动是由政府授权批准私人武装民船对敌国船只或殖民地港口进行袭击和掠夺的行为。 从事私掠船活动的人员不是一般意义上的“海盗”, 而是具有政治和民族倾向的“私掠船船员”。 本文分别介绍了16世纪的英国私掠船活动、 17至19世纪的法国私掠船活动以及19世纪南北战争时期的美国私掠船活动, 并分析了私掠船活动在英西战争、 英法海上争霸与美国南北战争中所起的作用。 Privateering refers to the activity that one of the hostile countries authorized ship-owners or go-betweens to intercept other countries’ ships, plundering their cargoes and treating with the sailors and passengers on board with violence, or to attack and loot the hostile countries’ colony harbors. The privateers refer to those who have certain political and national preference, not those who engage in piracy in general . This paper introduces five distinguished corsairs from the 16th century to 19th century, and analyzes the effect of the Privateering in Anglo-Spanish War, the struggle for maritime hegemony between France and Britain and American Civil War.

Wu Chunming 吴春明: “北洋”海域中朝航路及其沉船史迹 [A Preliminary Research to Shipwrecks Heritages on Sino-Korea Maritime Routes of “North Ocean”]

“北洋”是指唐宋时代环中国海海洋文化圈中的黄海、 东海为中心的航海地带, 包括了南北沿岸航线及东南亚陆岛间跨越东海、 黄海、 渤海的航路网络, 中朝航路就是这一航海实践的重要组成部分。 中朝北路存在于环渤海湾沿岸与朝鲜半岛西海岸之间, 辽宁绥中三道岗元代沉船就是这一航线的遗存。 中朝北路是从山东半岛发航经庙岛群岛对渡辽东半岛, 是北洋航路中最便捷的通道, 山东蓬莱水城的四艘元明时期的沉船、 韩国新安郡沉船见证了这段航路历史。 中朝南路存在于华南沿海与东亚岛屿带之间, 包跨跨越东海直达九州的东海通道, 及经台湾、 琉球列岛到达九州的冲绳通道, 闽浙沿海发现的不少宋元以来的高丽青瓷、 高丽史迹, 与这段航海史有关。 The “North Ocean” refers to Yellow China sea and East China sea in traditional Chinese navigation system from Tang dynasty on. In this ocean region the maritime routes include north-south coastal sailing route along continent and mainland-island sailing routes across East China sea, Yellow China sea and Bohai sea. The Sino-Korea maritime routes which involves 3 different lines had been one part of this navigation. These traditional maritime routes could be identified by archaeological shipwreck heritages. The north line situates coastal region surrounding Bohai and we uncovered Sandaogang shipwreck in Suizhong country of Liaodong province which dated to Yuan dynasty. The central line situates between Shandong peninsula and Liaodong peninsula acrossing Yellow China sea. The 4 shipwreck of Yuan&Ming dynasties from Penglai dock site of Shandong province and Shinan shipwreck of Yuan dynasty from south Korea witness this important historical navigation. The south line situates between south China mainland and archipelagoes of east Asia as Korea and Japan acrossing East China sea. A series of cultural heritages as Korean celadon were discovered in Zhejiang and Fujian province.

Xu Zhongfeng 徐中锋: 论广彩繁荣的内涵与意义——兼论清中期海外贸易的主要特征 [A Discussion on Connotation and Significance of the Prosperity of Guangzhou Colour Porcelain: And concerning the main features of the overseas trade in the mid Qing]

自康熙二十三年 (1684年) 开放海禁以来, 广州的行会组织与国外贸易机构相继产生。 作为海外贸易的大宗, 外销瓷从零散外销到集中定制, 市场行情发生了质的变化。 整体市场的繁荣既源于海外市场的自身、 大量需求, 也源于本土对海外市场的主动开拓, 销售的主要范围也从西亚扩大到欧洲, 海外贸易从此走向极度繁荣。 广彩应运而生、 独树一帜, 融合景德镇白瓷、 传统广州五彩及江西粉彩技艺, 优秀画工, 外商指导, 西洋图案, 高端定制等多项长处, 华美而富于变化, 是迎合欧洲高端市场需求的产品, 见证了外销瓷从各窑口本土风格——大量吸收西洋风格——独特的岭南艺术风格的变化过程, 成就了海外贸易中的巅峰之作。 在广彩繁荣的过程中, 行商和行会组织的发展也起到了积极的作用。 广彩的出现和繁荣迅速升华了外销瓷贸易的内涵, 带动了整个清中期海外贸易的发展, 收获了大量的白银, 深化了中西文化交往, 但由于清政府对海外贸易的诸多限制, 未能成为社会变革的一个动力, 反倒成为后来西方列强抢夺中国的一个诱因。 Guilds and foreign trade institutions in Guangzhou came into existence ever since the twenty-third year of Kangxi (1684) ,when China was open to foreign trade. As the bulk of foreign trade, porcelains for export from scattered to concentrated customized, market has undergone a qualitative change. The prosperity of overall market lies in the deep and high demand of overseas markets, but also for the initiative open up overseas markets. The main markets also expanded from West Asia to Europe, and the overseas trade reached extreme prosperity. Guangzhou colour porcelain was born for the moment. It blended white porcelain of Jingdezhen, fine art works, traditional pastel art of Guangzhou and Jiangxi colorful porcelain, with foreign guidance, the Western pattern, a number of strengths. high-end custom, beautiful and varied, is to cater to the European high end market demand, witnessed the export porcelain kilns from the local style - a lot to absorb Western-style - a unique artistic style of the Lingnan process of change, the achievements of overseas trade in the peak. Wide color in the process of prosperity, salesmen, and the line will be the organization's development also played a positive role. Wide color emerge and flourish quickly raised the export porcelain trade content, led to the intermediate stage of development of overseas trade, harvest a lot of silver, and deepen exchanges between Chinese and Western cultures, but Qiu Qing government in many restrictions on foreign trade, not to become a driving force of social change, and have actually became the Western powers to snatch one of China's incentive.

Zheng Ming郑明, Hu Mu 胡牧, Zhong Kai 钟铠: 中华帆的起源与发展 [Junk Sails Development History]

本文叙述中国传统舟船帆蓬的起源、 发展、 特征与操驾技术、 艺术内涵与赏析。 中华帆大约出现在春秋战国时期, 相当于公元前8—前3世纪, 也有认为更早些, 始于殷商时期。 中华帆的发展经历了两千多年, 它与古埃及、 阿拉伯、 印度、 欧洲舟船的三角形或方形软帆都有明显区别, 具有四角形、 扇形或矩形硬帆的特征。 20世纪中叶以后, 中华帆船逐渐从经济舞台上被淘汰出局, 而其文化遗产的价值有时仍被挖掘、 显露, 应该加以弘扬。 This paper describes the traditional Junk Rigs (Chinese boat sails) origin, development, characteristics and operation of drive technology, and appreciation of artistic content. Chinese sails appeared in the Spring and Autumn Period (8 BC – 3BC), but also that much earlier, began in the Shang period. Through two thousand years of development, Chinese sails are different with ancient Egypt, Arabia, India, Europe. Chinese sails are square, rectangular or fan hard characteristics. After the mid-20th century, the Chinese sailing gradually be eliminated from the economic arena, but the value of cultural heritage still be excavated, and should be promoted.